Control of Rattlesnakes

Reptiles - Amphibians Articles

Dog's Digestive System
There are numerous debates in the systematics within the group. Identification and control of wildlife damage. The best protection for humans when traveling in snake country is common sense in choosing protective foot and leg wear. But why wouldn't Sharp-shinned Hawks focus their hunting on the areas with the most potential prey bird feeders? The facial pits enable rattlesnakes to seek out and strike, even in darkness, warm objects such as small animal prey, as well as larger animals that could be a threat. As the knots were fed progessively smaller mussels day 22 to day 46 that are easier to crush, gizzard mass again declined. These are used primarily for seizing prey, but are also used in fighting and display.

Reptile Classification

Comparative Digestion

You can use lean meats and fish oil as a fat source. You can click here to view a good fish oil supplement for dogs. I need some input! I have a 6 month old American Bully who has had several stomach issues. She has had constant diarrhea issues, and last week she began throwing up a lot.

Followed by having runny stool with blood in it. I rushed her to the vet. One vet said she could of possibly have fabric in her stomach from chewing her bed up another vet said it was just a sensitive stomach and to switch her from Nature Variety Instinct what I was feeding her prior to her getting sick and throwing up which is a grain free diet to the prescription Hills ID Gastrointestinal for sensitive stomachs.

What should I do????? You may want to try the yeast starvation dog food recipe. Generally dogs digest this recipe well. Or try the easy raw dog food recipe first and see how she does on that dog food. Hi there, I am interested in started a raw food diet for my female German Shepard rescue Amora, she has been having a lot of stomach issues in the past 2 months, went from chicken bagged buffalo blue dog food to lamb and brown rice to cooked chicken and rice when they finally discovered shes potentially has an allergy to chicken , beef and lamb, she is now on Holistic Select, getting a few hard boiled eggs every few days.

She hates it and is now on meal 3 of not eating, so my question to you is; can I sub out the beef for turkey and skip the rice and use another filler instead, if you know of one that would be wonderful because we are trying to eliminate any and all grains from her diet. I hope to hear back from you.

Try feeding the chicken and rice dog food recipe , substitute sweet potato for the white rice. This recipe is nutritious and dogs love it.

Obviously, your website has explained this thoroughly and since we switched to a gluten free food, she has been much better. In the last 6 months, she has had problems with what we found out recently was a torn acl. Is there anything you would suggest to help her along with this change in her diet? We are also giving her raw beef bones to supplement calcium and help keep her teeth clean, she loves them and her teeth are as clean as a puppy now!

Thanks for any advice you might have to help us with the injury issue. Just keep it up and see how she does. This regime of prescription food and monthly vitamin injections has for the most part improved her issues over the past year.

However, she does go through phases still of not showing interest in food and throwing up the yellow bile. I am not comfortable with the ingredients in the prescription food and am searching for a more pure and natural diet for my sweet girl. I wondered what your thoughts might be and if you have any experience with these types of intestinal issues? Thank you for your time! Did the lab culture the pathogen? Did they give a possible cause?

Personally, I think it is alway best to feed an animal food they are designed to eat. Doing this usually solves a host of problems. Thank you for your reply! I am going to take your recipe to my vet and talk to her about switching the diet…I agree that providing a more natural what she is designed to eat has got to be healthier than pumping her full of medicine and prescription food! Sounds like a good idea but brace yourself for negative feedback.

Many veterinarians are against homemade dog foods and have very little training in nutrition. Ed, I definitely agree with your comment about vets and homemade food! But in all fairness to vets at least mine, whom I love they are NOT typically trained in nutrition and food.

They also are a bit eager in my experience to prescribe antibiotics without knowing the underlying cause. But I also find this to be true of human physicians as well.

Feeding and caring for dogs for me is as important as feeding and caring for a child. My dogs ARE my children. And that includes their treats as well. The pet food industry is a huge money making machine, and unfortunately, we Americans are led astray by their advertising, their lack of information of contents and origin, and the lack of regulation of food processing.

I am stepping down. But I hope more dog owners will find your site and heed your comments. It is up to US the owners and care takers to get the best for our dogs. My best friend is a 13 year old female Rottie. When she does throw up, It comes up with very little effort or distress.

Sometimes its undigested food, sometimes its white stuff…. Everything else about her seems fine. Gums are red, eyes are fine, personality is normal. She was, for a few weeks feed bread, by neighbor who was dog sitting…He meant no harm…but…bread is bad for dogs digestive systems, yes?

Hi Grace, I came in search of a possible solution to help my pup gain some weight and stumbled upon your question. The symptoms of your gal match the symptoms of the condition that my 10 month old pup is afflicted with. Another form of it is neurological. The nerves that tell the muscles of the esophagus to move food down cease to do so. I have to liquify my pups food and feed him on stairs so that gravity can help get his food into his stomach, but otherwise he leads a very normal life.

I started feeding her boiled chicken and rice and my once very fussy eater gobbled it up. Blood is gone, stools are becoming more solid. I want to try one of your diets — not sure if it should be raw or cooked; I want to stick to chicken at least at first because of the colitis.

Also, what about switching between chicken and beef — can you do that, or do you have to do the 24 hour fast? Switching between homemade dog food recipes does not require a fast. I just posted a chicken and rice dog food recipe that may work for you.

Any other advice to make her more healthy and have more normal stools would be appreciated. Linda PS Sadie says thanks for the delicious recipe — no more fussy eating!

I feed him a liquid diet in an upright position 4 times per day and he gets LOTS of exercise. Thank you very much for your time and possible advice. You may want to try the chicken and rice dog food recipe.

Pass this through a blender and it should be ok. Dogs metabolize fat well. High carbohydrate content in kibble seem to be more responsible for weight gain. I have just start my research about raw foods. I have a 5 year old Great Pyrenees who is having difficulties having bowel movements.

I have taken him to the vet multiple times and after many enemas and laxatives he seemed fine. However, they have told us to start putting metamucil on his food regularly as he would not eat the high fiber diet we started putting him on.

This worked for a couple of weeks, now he is back to the way he was backed up and we have to give him more laxatives. Someone mentioned to me that raw food may help with his digestion. Poor boy is in pain. Is the raw food diet good for this sort of thing? Thanks for your time. Have you ever tried probiotics to help his digestive tract? Yes, I started giving it to him when he started having problems. He is still having difficulties. I have been reading more about the raw food diet and I am becoming more nervous about it.

I read how if your not balancing the meals appropriately then you can cause more problems. Its so hard to tell what is legit. I will keep researching before I switch over. If I find anything I will also update you. If you are nervous about feeding raw dog food then just feed him cooked. Try feeding the chicken and rice dog food recipe or the easy cooked dog food recipe.

Your dog will love either and both are very nutritious. This is my first time on your website and I love that easy recipe with the eggshell and all! Now I put the used eggshell in my stale bread, cracker mix for the birds as they need it for digestion but I never thught you could do that for dogs.

Thanks for letting other animal lovers know about the positive benefits of a natural food diet for our beloved pets. I mean really, if the commercial dog food is all that great and healthy then why does it say NOT fit for human consumption? Hmmm, now I have an issue with that! Treat our furry critters as we want to be treated also!

Thank you so much and my 3 APBT just love their natural food fare! They whine like your 2 didin the video but they are so healthy and happy and just full of energy. Yes they love fish especially salmon. What a life they have! God Bless you and yours. I have an 8 month old Cavachon. She started having diarrhea here and there about 6 weeks ago. We had her poop tested at the vet but no parasites. She had been eating Diamond Puppy.

We switched to chicken and rice and diarrhea got better. Interesting note, on chicken and rice, she no longer ate her poop. Whenever we tried to put her back on Diamond Puppy, diarrhea would come back. So, back to chicken and rice. During that time, she ate part of a yard ornament and was given meds to make her vomit. After that, she had diarrhea even staying on chicken and rice. The vet gave her antidiarrheal meds for 10 days and it finally went away. Meanwhile, she was still on only chicken and rice.

After several days with nodiarrhea, I tried to give her a little Diamond Puppy again mixed in with chicken and rice and it started to come back again. I came across your cooked dog food recipe. I ordered Dinovite and Licochops. Before making the full recipe, I gave her a little Dinovite in her chicken and rice for the past 3 days.

Her diarrhea is back. I also caught her trying to eat her poop again. Not sure if there is something in the Dinovite that makes her want to eat her poop. I am currently making your cooked dog food recipe, but want to know your opinion on how to proceed since she will be starting while she already has some intestinal upset.

Other than the diarrhea , she is acting happy and healthy. Is her diarrhea watery or is she just having frequent softer stools?

I would try her on the chicken and rice dog food recipe or the easy cooked dog food recipe and follow the introductory methods. Then give her system time to adjust. She loves sweets and breads. She constantly has stomach issues. I give her a puppy multivitamin and she eats grass daily. She gets treats that have no artificial flavors, colors or preserves. What I want to know is if there is anything else I can do to help her with the stomach issues.

Any info would be greatly appreciated. Try the easy cooked dog food recipe or the chicken and rice dog food recipe and see how she does. I have a MinPin, Grace, whom is 2 years old. She is absolutely our baby. Sometime in November, I was cutting the red ring off of our bologna. I laid the small ring of paper on my table, and Grace ate the red paper.

You can find a suitable reptile or amphibian for a pet whether you live in a dorm room, an apartment, or in a house. Reptiles and amphibians are easy to take care of with a minimum amount of cleaning. You can even miss a feeding occasionally and not worry about it. In nature, herptiles don't get to eat constantly. They have to be much more active in collecting their food in the wild, than they do in captivity. Becoming obese can actually be a problem if they are fed daily.

About Reptile Cages The cage or enclosure to house your pet will be determined by the size of the reptile and its environmental needs. Housing for large reptiles can be accomplished with various types of cages. For smaller pets there are many different types of terrariums that can be set up. The shape of the cage too, must suit the needs of the pet that you will put in it.

For example, a tall narrow cage with a climbing branch is needed for an arboreal or tree dwelling animal, such as a chameleon. Whereas a low, wide cage is needed for a roving terrestrial or ground dwelling animal, such as a tortoise. Many commercially available reptile cages are pre-made glass terrariums or you can simply get an aquarium and a screen cover.

Wooden cages with glass fronts are sometimes available as well, or they can be built. When the weather permits, some reptiles can simply be housed in a backyard enclosure or a pond area. Some people will even create elaborate indoor setups for their pet reptile, like an indoor atrium.

Types of Terrariums The types of reptile cages and habitats are limited only to your imagination and being suitable for the type of reptile you have.

There are four basic habitats for herptiles, which include: Aquatic Terrarium Some animals that are suited to an aquatic terrarium are turtles, frogs, newts, rubber eels, water snakes, mudpuppies, waterdogs and salamanders.

The aquatic terrarium is like an aquarium. You need water, a submersible heater, usually gravel is spread on the bottom, and a filter is nice to make maintenance less work. It differs slightly from an aquarium by the decor you use, the lid or covering used on the top, and the amount of water needed generally 4 to 6 inches for the animal that will live there.

First you will need a vented or wire screen top. This allows air to circulate through the terrarium as well as giving you a place set a basking lamp. Next a basking area is usually needed. It can either be a floating type such as an artificial lily pad or a slab of bark, or it can be a built up area of rocks and moss.

Then you will want a background. This is important not only to provide a naturally looking setting, but to help your pet feel secure and comfortable.

Semi-Aquatic Terrarium Some animals that are suited to the semi-aquatic terrarium are most of the various salamanders, frogs, and newts.

Also crocodile lizards, caimans, basilisks, and several turtle types. A semi-aquatic terrarium is a combination of water and land. The land and water areas can be divided with a piece of glass attached and sealed with silicon, or a removable container can be used for the water area.

The water area can be set up like the aquatic terrarium with a heater, gravel and filter. The land area can be filled with substrates such as: A layer of charcoal covered with filter floss placed under the substrate helps keep it fresh. Decorate the terrarium with driftwood, moss, rocks and plants. Plants can be added to the land area by planting them directly into the substrate or by submersing pots into the substrate.

Pick plants whose size fits the animal and terrarium size; for example, ferns are great for tree frogs while pray plants are good for moderate sized lizards. Depending on the inhabitant you may need to provide a heat source that provides a basking area.

Make sure there is a thermal gradient to the enclosure, with the basking source at one end while the other end is cooler. Woodland Terrarium The woodland terrarium can house various frogs including red-eyed tree frogs, barking tree frogs, green tree frogs and true frogs; also various salamanders, day geckos, anoles, skinks, and snakes.

The woodland terrarium is set up just like the semi-aquatic terrarium only without the large water area. Simply provide a water bowl. This terrarium is all substrate with plants, driftwood, moss and rocks. Depending on the type of animal you will house here, substrates can be: The pets you wish to keep in it will also determine if it should be planted, and how heavily it should be planted; whether you will have more branches for tree climbers or more rocks for ground dwellers.

Plants such as philodendrons, syngoniums, fittonias, and other greenhouse varieties can work well in these terrariums. Various "air plants" such as tillandsia work great, too. They are real low maintenance, they can be attached to driftwood and will do well just being misted a couple of times a week. You may need to provide a heat source, depending on the inhabitant, but make sure there is a thermal gradient to the enclosure, generally one end that is warmer while cooler on the other end.

This allows your reptile to thermoregulate as it needs to. Full-spectrum lighting is also important for some of the woodland types. Desert Terrarium Some pets that will do very well in the desert terrarium are: A desert terrarium is just what it's name implies, an arid or semi-arid environment.

Good substrates for this terrarium includes reptile bark, terrarium carpet or sand. Plants need be able to handle low humidity and be drought tolerant, such as cactus and succulents. You will need to provide a heat source but make sure there is a thermal gradient to the enclosure, generally one end that is warmer while cooler on the other end. Full-spectrum lighting is also important for most of the desert types.

Terrarium Supplies The housing requirements for most cages and terrariums consist of four basic elements; heating, lighting, floor covering, decor and cleaning. The reptile supplies for these elements sometimes overlap. An example is lighting, where a full-spectrum incandescent bulb will provide heat for all reptiles.

It will also provide adequate lighting for some reptiles though not all. It is not an adequate full-spectrum lighting for lizards such as the iguana or the sun lizard. Heating Heating your terrarium can be accomplished by using one or more methods or devices in order to provide the optimum environment for the herptile you are housing.

For many species it is often best to provide heating in a manner that offers a thermal gradient to the enclosure, that is to say, warmer on one end and cooler on the other. Heating can be provided in several ways: Heating devices kept outside the enclosure will prevent accidental burns. Hot rocks should be avoided or used very carefully and only as a secondary or supplementary heat source see more about them below Thermometer It is important to have a wide-range thermometer mounted on your terrarium so that you can monitor the temperature and make sure it is appropriate for the herps you will be housing.

Using two thermometers, one on each end, will give a better indication of the thermal gradient of the enclosure warm to cool. Basking lamps Basking lamps can be mounted at the top, usually outside the wire top of the cage. You don't want your pet to be able to touch the lamp as it can get burnt. The lamp provides a heat source through a full-spectrum bulb during the daytime and a red frosted bulb or a "blacklight" bulb for night. The light in these nighttime bulbs cannot be seen by your pet though you can still see it , so they think it's dark out.

Ceramic heating elements Ceramic heating elements do not provide light but produce a lot of heat. They screw into a fixture just like a light bulb but due to the extreme heat must only be used in a fixture with a ceramic socket. This fixture can be mounted on top of terrarium in a manner similar to a basking lamp.

Under tank heaters Under tank heat sources such as heating pads or tapes are a good choice for supplementing heat provided by a basking light or to provide heat at night. Hot rocks Hot rocks should generally be avoided as they can get quite warm or even have hot spots. They don't help with heating the whole terrarium and can burn a reptile resting on one, causing injury and sometimes even death.

With newer technology today, there are hot rocks available that have been developed to prevent the problems of over-heating and hot spots. They have controlled heating elements for setting the desired temperature and thermal conductive resins that cover the stone for even heat distribution. However, these thermal controlled hot rocks still provide heat only on the rock, so they don't solve the problem of adequately heating the whole terrarium, and as such are not suitable for large lizards or snakes.

These specialty bulbs are available through pet stores that sell reptiles. Incandescent bulbs A full-spectrum incandescent bulb provides heat as well as light. These can be mounted as a basking lamp.

They are fine for many lizards, but for lizards that require natural sunlight, it is not adequate. These must have fluorescent lighting. Fluorescent bulbs A full-spectrum fluorescent bulb provides a sunlight replacement for those pets that need full-spectrum lighting. Not all require this, but those that do will be at risk if they don't get it. These include many diurnal, or day-time active lizards and tortoises. Of course, natural sunlight is the best source of full-spectrum lighting.

Flooring Covering There are a variety of floor coverings that can be used for your pet, but they all have their own considerations. One of the primary considerations in choosing floor coverings is cleanliness. Be wary of harmful micro-organisms.

Introduction