Noncommunicable diseases and mental health
SDG 17 calls for countries to increase the availability of disaggregated data. Vitamin D is made naturally by the body when exposed to sunlight. Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:. Research studies in the laboratory have examined the effects of pomegranate on many prostate cancer cell lines and in rodent models of the disease. GDP is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. On the other hand, there is no evidence that an individual who follows a vegetarian or vegan diet before cancer therapy should abandon it upon starting treatment. Source of data Micronutrients Database [online database].
Interventions by global target. No increase in childhood overweight. What does this indicator tell us? Anaemia has a wide variety of causes. Other conditions malaria and other infections, genetic disorders, cancer also play a role. How is it defined? Anaemia is defined as a haemoglobin concentration below a specified cut-off point, which can change according to the age, gender, physiological status, smoking habits and altitude at which the population being assessed lives.
Tests to measure haemoglobin levels are easy to administer. The test could be easily integrated into regular health or prenatal visits or household surveys to capture women of reproductive age, though one needs to consider the cost of the equipment and regular calibration.
Anaemia is associated with increased risks for maternal and child mortality. Iron-deficiency anaemia reduces the work capacity of individuals and entire populations, with serious consequences for the economy and national development. In addition, the negative consequences of iron-deficiency anaemia on the cognitive and physical development of children and on physical performance - particularly the work productivity of adults - are major concerns.
Anaemia is a global problem affecting all countries. Resource-poor areas are often more heavily impacted due to the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main risk factors for iron-deficiency anaemia include a low dietary intake of iron or poor absorption of iron from diets rich in phytates or phenolic compounds. Population groups with greater iron requirements, such as growing children and pregnant women, are particularly at risk.
Overall, the most vulnerable, poorest and least educated groups are disproportionately affected by iron-deficiency anaemia. No public health problem. Mild public health problem.
Moderate public health problem. Severe public health problem. Stevens GA et al. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for Lancet Global Health ; ; 1: Data about haemoglobin and anaemia for women of childbearing age 15—49 years were estimated for each country and for each year between and using survey data obtained from population-representative data sources from countries worldwide.
A Bayesian hierarchical mixture model was used to estimate haemoglobin distributions and systematically addressed missing data, non-linear time trends, and representativeness of data sources. More information on the methodology can be found in: Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. At population level, the proportion of infants with a low birth weight is an indicator of a multifaceted public health problem that includes long-term maternal mal nutrition , ill health and poor health care in pregnancy.
Low birth weight is more common in developing than developed countries. Low birth weight is included as a primary outcome indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. Low birth weight is caused by intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity or both. It contributes to a range of poor health outcomes: Low-birth-weight infants are approximately 20 times more likely to die than heavier infants. However, data on low birth weight in developing countries is often limited because a significant portion of deliveries are done in homes or small health facilities where cases of infants with low birth weight often go unreported.
These cases are not reflected in official figures and may lead to a significant underestimation of low birth weight prevalence. Feto-maternal nutrition and low birth weight.
Low birth weight policy brief. The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include:. Early initiation of breastfeeding is defined as the proportion of children born in the past 24 months who were put to the breast within 1 hour of birth. Breastfeeding contributes to saving children's lives, and there is evidence that delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases their risk for mortality.
Exclusive breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important implications for the health of mothers. An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants.
Thereafter, infants should receive complementary foods with continued breastfeeding up to 2 years of age or beyond. Breast milk is the natural first food for infants. It provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life. It continues to provide up to one half or more of a child's nutritional needs during the second half of the first year and up to one third during the second year of life. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases.
Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and leads to quicker recovery from illness.
Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers and saving family and national resources. It is a secure way of feeding and is safe for the environment. The indicator is the percentage of infants who start solid, semisolid or soft foods at between 6 and 8 months of age. WHO recommends starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age.
It is defined as the proportion of infants aged months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. When breast milk alone no longer meets the nutritional needs of the infant, complementary foods should be added.
The transition from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods, referred to as 'complementary feeding', typically occurs between 6 and months of age. This is a very vulnerable period, and it is the time when malnutrition often starts, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children under 5 worldwide. This indicator is the percentage of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. A minimum acceptable diet is essential to ensure appropriate growth and development for feeding infants and children aged months.
Without adequate diversity and meal frequency, infants and young children are vulnerable to malnutrition, especially stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, and to increased morbidity and mortality. Infant and young child feeding list of publications.
The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy. This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy. It is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution.
The terms used for diarrhoea should cover the expressions used for all forms of diarrhoea, including bloody stools consistent with dysentery and watery stools, and should encompasses mothers' definitions as well as local terms.
Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the major causes of mortality among children under 5, accounting for 1. As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost—effective intervention indicates progress on an intermediate outcome indicator of the Global Nutrition Targets, prevalence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age.
Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Moderate and severe thinness, underweight, overweight, obesity.
The values for body mass index BMI are age-independent for adult populations and are the same for both genders. BMI may not, however, correspond to the same degree of fatness in different populations due, in part, to different body proportions. The health risks associated with increasing BMI are continuous, and the interpretation of BMI grading in relation to risk may differ for different populations. Proportions of underweight in women aged years and of overweight in women aged 18 years or more are included as intermediate outcome indicators in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
BMI is a simple index of weight-to-height commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. For example, an adult who weighs 58 kg and whose height is 1. Moderate and severe thinness: It has been linked to clear-cut increases in illness in adults studied in three continents and is therefore a further reasonable value to choose as a cut-off point for moderate risk.
The cut-off point of The proportion of the population with a low BMI that is considered a public health problem is closely linked to the resources available for correcting the problem, the stability of the environment and government priorities.
In some populations, the metabolic consequences of weight gain start at modest levels of overweight. The costs attributable to obesity are high, not only in terms of premature death and health care but also in terms of disability and a diminished quality of life. Low prevalence warning sign, monitoring required.
Medium prevalence poor situation. High prevalence serious situation. Very high prevalence critical situation. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from to Obesity and other diet related chronic diseases, list of publications. Halt the rise in diabetes and obesity.
Adolescent birth rate per 1, women aged years. The adolescent birth rate, technically known as the age-specific fertility rate provides a basic measure of reproductive health focusing on a vulnerable group of adolescent women.
The indicator adolescent birth rate per 1, women aged years is included as an intermediate outcome indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. It is also referred to as the age-specific fertility rate for women aged There is substantial agreement in the literature that women who become pregnant and give birth very early in their reproductive lives are subject to higher risks of complications or even death during pregnancy and birth and their children are also more vulnerable.
Furthermore, women having children at an early age experience a curtailment of their opportunities for socio-economic improvement, particularly because young mothers are unlikely to keep on studying and, if they need to work, may find it especially difficult to combine family and work responsibilities. The adolescent birth rate provides also indirect evidence on access to reproductive health since the youth, and in particular unmarried adolescent women, often experience difficulties in access to reproductive health care.
Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Moderate and severe thinness, underweight, overweight, obesity What do these indicators tell us?
Overweight in school-age children and adolescents. This indicator reflects the percentage of school-age children and adolescents years who are classified as overweight based on age and sex specific values for body mass index BMI.
Overweight indicates excess body weight for a given height from fat, muscle, bone, water or a combination of these factors, whilst obesity is defined as having excess body fat. The immediate consequences of overweight and obesity in school-age children and adolescents include greater risk of asthma and cognitive impairment, in addition to the social and economic consequences for the child, its family and the society.
In the long term, overweight and obesity in children increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, respiratory disease, mental health, and reproductive disorders later in life. Furthermore, obesity and overweight track over the life course — an overweight adolescent girl is more likely to become an overweight woman and, thus, her baby is likely to have a heavier birth weight.
Growth reference years. Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. Infant and young child feeding. The recommendations for feeding infants and young children 6—23 months include: The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include: Early initiation of breastfeeding. This indicator is the percentage of infants who are put to the breast within 1 hour of birth.
Infants under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed. This indicator is the percentage of infants aged 0—5 months who are exclusively breastfed. It is the proportion of infants aged 0—5 months who are fed exclusively on breast milk and no other food or drink, including water. The infant is however, allowed to receive ORS and drops and syrups containing vitamins, minerals and medicine. Infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods.
Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. As per revised recommendation by TEAM in June , dietary diversity is present when the diet contained five or more of the following food groups: Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet.
This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. Proportion of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
The composite indicator of a minimum acceptable diet is calculated from: Dietary diversity is present when the diet contained four or more of the following food groups: The minimum daily meal frequency is defined as: A minimum acceptable diet is essential to ensure appropriate growth and development for feeding infants and children aged 6—23 months. Source of all infant and young child feeding indicators. Infant and Young Child Feeding database.
Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. Improved sanitation facilit ies and drinking-water sources. These indicators are the percentage of population with access to an improved drinking-water source and improved sanitation facilities. Improved drinking-water sources are defined in terms of the types of technology and levels of services that are likely to provide safe water.
Improved water sources include household connections, public standpipes, boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs and rainwater collection. Unimproved water sources are unprotected wells, unprotected springs, vendor-provided water, bottled water unless water for other uses is available from an improved source and tanker truck-provided water.
Improved sanitation facilities are defined in terms of the types of technology and levels of services that are likely to be sanitary. Improved sanitation includes connection to a public sewers, connection to septic systems, pour-flush latrines, simple pit latrines and ventilated improved pit latrines.
Service or bucket latrines from which excreta are removed manually , public latrines and open latrines are not considered to be improved sanitation. Access to safe drinking-water and improved sanitation are fundamental needs and human rights vital for the dignity and health of all people. The health and economic benefits of a safe water supply to households and individuals especially children are well documented. Both indicators are used to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals.
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Developed obese and diabetic mutant rat models: Established a state of the art non-human primate facility with provision for experiments based on monkeys.
The Centre is recognized by Dr. University of Health Sciences for pursuing post graduation in Applied Nutrition. The institute has trained over health professionals from more than 35 countries. More than candidates have successfully obtained Ph. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Governor for review of PDS". The Times Of India. Cambridge University Press, pp. P" , British Medical Journal , 1 Indian Council of Medical Research. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience.