Whey Protein vs. Soy Protein
This also allows it to have less fillers. Biochemistry , Amino acid , and Peptide bond. Co-ingestion of leucine with protein does not further augment post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates in elderly men. When heated, sunflower oil breaks down oxidizes more than other polyunsaturated fats, and can lead to rancidity when the PV peroxide values get too high. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ;34 4: Protein is what rebuilds strong muscle, and nobody is attracted to weak muscles.
Whey proteins were originally isolated through the use of various precipitation techniques, but nowadays membrane separation fractionation and chromatographic processes are used in addition to both precipitation and complexing techniques. Whey proteins, as constituents of whey powders, can easily be produced by careful drying of whey.
Isolation of whey proteins has therefore been developed. The whey proteins obtained by membrane separation or ion exchange possess good functional properties, i. Protein concentrates have a very good amino acid profile, with high proportions of available lysine and cysteine.
Whey protein concentrates WPC are powders made by drying the retentates from ultrafiltration of whey. Percentage protein in dry matter according to the values in Table The concentrations of lactose, NPN and ash are generally the same in the retentate serum and permeate as in the original whey, but a slight retention of these components is reported.
It is then necessary to diafilter the concentrate to remove more of the lactose and ash and raise the concentration of protein relative to the total dry matter. Diafiltration is a procedure in which water is added to the feed as filtration proceeds, in order to wash out low molecular components which will pass through the membranes, basically lactose and minerals.
A process line for the production of drier whey protein concentrate using UF is shown in Figure For further details about UF, see Chapter 6. Advances in microfiltration have drastically improved the quality and economics of product available, moving from a traditionally hot ceramic filter process to a cold organic spiral wound process in recent years.
Microfiltration also concentrates fat globule membranes and most of the bacteria in the MF retentate, which is collected and processed separately; in some cases, this retentate is dried on the same dryer as the WPI, resulting in a high fat WPC powder. The defatted MF permeate is routed to a second UF plant for concentration; this stage also includes diafiltration. The retentate is pumped to the MF plant 3 , while the permeate goes to a collecting tank after RO concentration and cooling.
The retentate from MF treatment, which contains most of the fat and bacteria, is collected separately, and the defatted permeate is forwarded to further ultrafiltration with diafiltration 4. These are explained in more detail below. Consequently, there is an absence of GMP glycomacropeptide , lactic acid levels above those that are naturally occurring, degradation of proteins by starter culture enzymes and risks from bacteriophages.
The retentate, in liquid or powder form, can be used in a variety of products where casein fortification is beneficial; this includes cheese, dairy desserts and beverages. The resulting permeate from UF 2 is concentrated directly and then stored ready for further processing. The type of membrane used to concentrate permeate depends on whether it is being used to standardize protein in milk powders, spray-dried as permeate or used for lactose production.
This is explained in more detail below. In general, serum protein or whey proteins cannot be precipitated by rennet or acid. It is, however, possible to precipitate whey proteins with acid, if they are first denatured by heat. The process is divided into two stages:. Denatured whey proteins can be mixed with cheese milk prior to renneting; they are then retained in the lattice structure formed by the casein molecules during coagulation. This discovery led to intensive efforts to find a method of precipitating and separating whey proteins, as well as a technique for optimizing the yield.
Adding denatured whey proteins to the cheese is not permitted by law in several countries, and also for certain types of cheese. Denatured proteins, either by adding or by pasteurization at high temperatures, affect both yield and ripening of the cheese.
After pH adjustment, the whey is pumped via an intermediate tank 1 to a plate heat exchanger 2 for regenerative heating. Acid is introduced during this stage, to lower the pH. The acid is either organic or inorganic e. Those proteins that can be, and have been, modified by heat are precipitated within 60 seconds in a tubular holding section 4.
The addition of concentrated whey protein to cheese milk — principally in the manufacture of soft and semi-hard cheeses — causes only minor changes in the coagulating properties. The structure of the curd becomes finer and more uniform than with conventional methods. The processed whey proteins are more hydrophilic than casein. There are currently a few options available for the further processing of UF permeate from whey or skim milk as shown below.
Only milk UF permeate and lactose can be used for the standardization of protein in milk powders. The processes for the manufacture of lactose and permeate powder are explained below in Fig. Lactose is the main constituent of whey. There are two basic methods of recovery, depending on the raw material:. Both methods produce a mother-lye, molasses, which can be dried and used as fodder. The feed value can be increased considerably if the molasses is desalinated and if high-quality proteins are added.
Several of these factors are mutually related to each other, for example degree of saturation and viscosity. The tanks have cooling jackets and equipment for control of the cooling temperature. They are also fitted with special agitators. After crystallization, the slurry proceeds to decanter centrifuges and a sieve centrifuge 3 for separation of the crystals, which are dried 4 to a powder. Following grinding typically in a hammer mill and sifting, the lactose is packed 5.
For efficient and simple separation of lactose crystals from the mother liquor, crystallization must be arranged so that the crystals exceed 0. The degree of crystallization is determined in principle by the quantity of b-lactose converted to the desired a-lactose form, and the cooling of the concentrate must therefore be carefully controlled and optimized.
Various types of centrifuges can be used for harvesting lactose crystals. One is the horizontal decanter centrifuge Figure Two machines are installed in series. The lactose from the first is reprocessed in the second for more efficient separation. During separation, impurities are washed from the lactose so that a high degree of purity is obtained.
The lactose is dried after separation to a residual moisture content of 0. The drying time must also be taken into consideration. During quick drying, a thin layer of amorphous shapeless, non-crystalline lactose tends to form on the a-hydrate crystal, and this may later result in formation of lumps.
Drying usually takes place in a fluidized bed drier. The crystals are normally ground to a powder immediately after drying and are then packed. A higher degree of purity or very white lactose is required for some applications e. The refining of lactose can also improve the yield of a lactose process.
After filtration, the solution is recrystallized and centrifuged before drying, milling and packing. This is an expensive process where double execution of equipment is required for continuous processing, and where active carbon and filter adjuvant are sent directly to waste. More recently, alternative processes involving continuous decalcification and riboflavin removal source of the yellow colour in lactose using regenerable activated carbon columns produce refined white lactose much more economically.
These processes are even capable of pharmaceutical-grade lactose with the addition of additional decanting and washing. An alternative to making lactose from UF permeate is to convert into permeate powder as shown by the process depicted in Figure The product Permeate powder has seen high growth in applications within animal feed and food applications when high-purity lactose is not required and the ash level in permeate is acceptable.
Functional properties such as free flowing non-caking behaviour, colour and flavour over a long shelf life are very important for permeate powder, and production conditions must be carefully selected to achieve these. Product is then stored 5 for a minimum of 6h to allow for final crystallisation and then packed in 25 kg bags or lorry. High temperatures required to facilitate the handling of the highly viscous permeate concentrates should be chosen carefully because they can degrade product quality, particularly colour and flavour.
Partially demineralized whey concentrate can, for instance, be used in the manufacture of ice-cream and bakery products or even in quarg, whereas highly demineralized whey concentrate or powder can be utilized in formulas for infants and, of course, in a very wide group of other products. Demineralization involves removal of inorganic salts, together with some reduction in the content of organic ions, such as lactates and citrates. This type of filtration is called nanofiltration NF.
By using a specially designed 'leaky' RO membrane, small particles like certain monovalent ions, e. This membrane process is known by various names such as ultraosmosis, 'leaky' RO and nanofiltration NF.
Because of their greater compactness, spiral-wound membranes are most often used in new installations. For further information about this type of membrane, see Chapter 6.
Examples of permeation rates of normal sweet whey constituents during nanofiltration are given in Table The reason for this difference in elimination of ions is the need of maintaining an electrochemical balance between negative and positive ions. Installation of NF equipment in whey processing can be considered in the following situations:.
Electrodialysis is defined as the transport of ions through non-selective semi-permeable membranes under the driving force of a direct current DC and an applied potential.
The membranes used have both anion and cation exchange functions, making the electrodialysis process capable of reducing the mineral content of a process liquid, e. The two electrodes at each end of the cell stack have separate rinse channels as shown in Figure For whey treatment, the whey feed and acidified brine pass through alternate cells in the stack, whose construction can be likened to that of a plate heat exchanger or plate sheet ultrafiltration module.
It consists of a number of compartments separated by alternate cation and anion exchange membranes which are spaced about 1 mm or less apart. The end compartments contain electrodes.
There can be as many as cell pairs between each pair of electrodes. Alternate cells in the electrodialysis stack act as concentration and dilution cells respectively. When direct current DC is applied across the cells, cations attempt to migrate to the cathode and anions to the anode, as shown in Figure However, completely free migration is not possible, because the membranes act as barriers to ions of identical charge.
Anions can pass through an anion membrane, but are stopped by a cation membrane. Conversely, cations can pass through a cation membrane but not an anion membrane. The net result is depletion of ions in the whey dilution cells. The whey is thus demineralized, to an extent determined by the ash content of the whey, residence time in the stack, current density and flow viscosity.
The electrodialysis plant can be run either continuously or in batches. This is indicated by the conductivity of the process liquid. The whey concentrate should be clarified before it enters the electrodialysis unit.
The process liquid heats up during the process, so a cooling stage is needed to maintain the process temperature. In a continuous plant, consisting of five membrane stacks in series, the holding time can be reduced to 10 — 40 minutes.
In relation to capacity, the installed membrane area is much larger in a continuous plant than in a batch plant. An electrodialysis plant can easily be automated and furnished with a programmed CIP system. The cleaning sequence normally includes water rinse, cleaning with an alkaline solution max.
A typical cleaning programme takes minutes. Direct current is used in the electrodialysis plant, which should have facilities for regulating current in the range of 0 — A and voltage in the range of 0 — V. Flow rates, temperatures, conductivity, pH of process water and product, product inlet pressure, pressure difference between the stacks and current, as well as voltage over each membrane stack, are monitored and controlled during production.
Replacement is necessary due to fouling of the membranes, which in turn is caused by:. The first problem can be handled by proper flow design over the membrane surface and regular acid cleaning. Protein deposits are the main factor in shortening the lifetime of the anion membranes. The background to this problem is as follows: These molecules, being too large to pass through the anion exchange membranes, are deposited as a thin protein layer on the faces of the anion exchange membranes in the whey compartments.
Techniques such as polarity reversal can be used to dislodge these deposited materials from the membrane. Although frequent high-pH cleaning removes most of the deposits, disassembly of the stack for manual cleaning is recommended at intervals of 2 — 4 weeks. The processing cost of electrodialysis depends very much on the de-mineralization rate. Water treatment, electric power, chemicals and steam account for the operating costs of a demineralization plant.
Waste water treatment is a particularly heavy item. The phosphate removed from whey also accumulates in the waste stream. In contrast to electrodialysis, the process which removes ionizable solids from solutions on a continuous electro-chemical basis, an ion exchange process employs resin beads to adsorb minerals from solution, in exchange for other ionic species.
The resins have a finite capacity for this, so that when they are completely saturated, the adsorbed minerals must be removed and the resins regenerated before reuse. Normally, the resins are used in fixed columns of suitable design. Ion exchange resins are macromolecular porous plastic materials, formed into beads with diameters in the range of 0.
Chemically, they act as insoluble acids or bases which, when converted into salts, remain insoluble. The main characteristic of ion exchange resins is their capacity to exchange the mobile ions they contain for ions of the same charge sign, contained in the solution to be treated.
A simple example of this reaction is shown for sodium chloride removal, where R is the exchange group bound to the insoluble resin. The reaction above is deliberately written as an equilibrium, because the direction in which the reaction goes depends on the ion concentration in the liquid and in the solids phase of the resin. The equilibrium is characterized by a constant. The high concentration of hydrogen ions in the acid drives the equilibrium to the left. The equilibrium constant varies depending on ion species, which gives the selectivity of ion exchange processes.
Generally speaking, multivalent ions have higher selectivity than monovalent ones and ions of the same valence are selected by size, large ions having higher selectivity. Similarly, anion exchange selectively can be classified in the following way: This figure shows what happens in a column treating ordinary raw water in a cation exchanger loaded in the hydrogen ion form.
Unfortunately, new studies now indicate that not only is this not necessarily true, but that aminoacidemia may be a contributing factor in the onset of diabetes. Again, we're talking about intentionally induced aminoacidemia through diet. For years bodybuilders have claimed this is a helpful condition for building muscle, and for several years now, this has been one of the main selling features of whey protein in the bodybuilding community.
The rational is that muscle growth is about staying in a positive nitrogen state. Exercise damages muscle, stresses it, and throws your body into a negative nitrogen catabolic breakdown state. And the best way to take yourself out of a catabolic state and into a positive nitrogen anabolic building state is to consume the fastest absorbing protein you can get your hands on -- whey.
And there is no question that whey protein induces a short term dramatic increase in blood levels of amino acids -- i. Unfortunately, new studies now indicate that this rational, taken as a whole, may not necessarily be true. Specifically, studies have confirmed the "paradox" of the highly soluble proteins found in whey and whey isolate, which, despite their high Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score, ensure a rate of amino acid delivery that is too rapid to sustain the body's anabolic requirement during the minutes and hours after consuming it -- thus being counterproductive for the development of muscle.
Or in simple terms, aminoacidemia may not provide the benefit many bodybuilders think it does. But even worse, aminoacidemia may actually have long term health consequences. One example is diabetes. This, of course, significantly lowers blood sugar levels. However, over time, this constant stimulation may overstress and degrade the ability of beta-cells to produce sufficient insulin when called for and may ultimately, over time, contribute to pre-diabetic and diabetic conditions in the body.
In addition, excess amino acids are converted into carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia. Ammonia is toxic to the body and is a primary cause of premature fatigue. Normally, the body handles excess ammonia by converting it to urea then filtering it through the kidneys.
But if the ammonia level is too high, it overburdens the kidneys. This is why doctors will insist on lower levels of protein intake in cases of kidney disease. And finally, although you can find studies all over the map on the question of high amino acid levels in the blood i. For bodybuilders, the paradox of aminoacidemia says that the main virtue of whey, its high Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score, probably produces a rate of amino acid delivery that is too rapid to sustain the anabolic requirement during the immediate hours after consuming it — thus making it counterproductive for the development of muscle.
Intestinal toxemia is not a medical condition. It is more of a catchall phrase used in the alternative health community to describe a set of conditions that can arise in the intestinal tract as the result of improper dietary choices. It has three primary manifestations:. Intestinal toxemia occurs when large particles of undigested food enter the small intestine and colon. Since these parts of the digestive tract were not designed to handle excessive amounts of undigested food, the partially digested food mass becomes a fertile breeding ground for bacteria and yeast fermentation.
Each nutrient degrades in its own unique way. Proteins putrefy, carbohydrates ferment, and fats become rancid due to the workings of intestinal bacteria. These bacteria then produce harmful by-products that damage the intestines, reduce nutrient assimilation, create excess gas and bloating, and lead to persistent diarrhea. On top of that, mild to intense stomach pains the result of muscle cramping and excessive gas accompany this process.
Prolonged intestinal toxemia may be a major contributing factor in the onset of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Crohn's Disease. For a number of reasons, whey protein can be a major factor in promoting intestinal toxemia. Whey contains no fiber , which is necessary to keep things moving consistently through the intestinal tract.
Because it is highly processed, whey protein contains no live enzymes to break down the large whey proteins. The human body actually has a hard time breaking down the three primary proteins in whey.
Taken together, these problems provide an optimum environment for non-beneficial intestinal bacteria to thrive in. In addition, whey is very acid forming, which lowers the pH of the normally alkaline environment of the intestinal tract, thus favoring the growth of unfriendly bacteria over beneficial bacteria.
Performance Weight Loss Active Adults. Common Health Concerns With Many Protein Supplements New research suggests some potential health concerns over certain proteins such as aminoacidemia and allergies. These are people who cannot digest lactose, the sugar found in dairy products.
According to the FDA , symptoms include gas, stomach cramps, diarrhea, etc. However, many others are also allergic to dairy products, specifically the proteins found in milk and whey. Either way, poorly digested bovine antigens substances that provoke an immune reaction like casein become "allergens" in allergic individuals.
Dairy products are the leading cause of food allergy, often revealed by diarrhea, constipation and fatigue. Many cases of asthma and sinus infections are reported to be relieved and even eliminated by cutting out dairy.
The exclusion of dairy, however, must be complete to see any benefit. Common symptoms, according to medical authorities, usually appear within minutes to a couple of hours after eating the food in question and include: Tingling sensation in the mouth Swelling of the tongue and throat Difficulty breathing Hives Acne Vomiting Abdominal cramps Diarrhea Drop in blood pressure Loss of consciousness, and death.
Two parts of the immune response are involved: The antibody, immunoglobulin E IgE , that circulates in the blood.
And mast cells, which can be found in all body tissues but especially in the nose, throat, lungs, skin, and gastrointestinal tract.