The Ultimate Guide to Muscle Protein Synthesis

Things to Know

Butter or Ghee: Which is Better for Keto?
This page is regularly updated, to include the most recently available clinical trial evidence. Annals of Neurology, 48 5 , Brain Research Aug 25; Formicola V, Giannecchini M. View inline View popup. Would taking fish oil around exercise possibly blunt MPS due to its anti-inflammatory properties?

Flashreport zur Meisterschaft der ANBF

Sorry! can’t be accessed through your browser.

The team includes nutrition researchers, registered dietitians, physicians, and pharmacists. We have a strict editorial process. This page features references.

All factual claims are followed by specifically-applicable references. Click here to see the full set of references for this page. Creatine is a molecule produced in the body.

It stores high-energy phosphate groups in the form of phosphocreatine. Phosphocreatine releases energy to aid cellular function during stress. This effect causes strength increases after creatine supplementation, and can also benefit the brain, bones, muscles, and liver.

Most of the benefits of creatine are a result of this mechanism. Creatine can be found in some foods, mostly meat, eggs, and fish. Creatine supplementation confers a variety of health benefits and has neuroprotective and cardioprotective properties. It is often used by athletes to increase both power output and lean mass.

Stomach cramping can occur when creatine is supplemented without sufficient water. Diarrhea and nausea can occur when too much creatine is supplemented at once, in which case doses should be spread out throughout the day and taken with meals. There have been some anecdotal reports of a subtle but noticeable stimulatory effect on alertness, but this may be a placebo effect.

There have been some anecdotal reports of restlessness when creatine is supplemented less than an hour before falling asleep. The water retention usually seen with higher loading doses can exceed five pounds more than two kilograms.

Lower doses may cause less water retention. While water mass is not muscle mass though both count as lean mass , prolonged creatine supplementation results in an increased rate of muscle growth. Hyperhydration strategies creatine plus glycerol appear inefficacious as drug-masking strategies. Alpha-Lipoic Acid see here. Leucine , due to mTOR activation see here. HMB see here , a metabolite of leucine.

There are many different forms of creatine available on the market, but creatine monohydrate is the cheapest and most effective. Another option is micronized creatine monohydrate, which dissolves in water more easily and can be more practical.

Creatine monohydrate can be supplemented through a loading protocol. To start loading, take 0. Diarrhea and nausea can occur when too much creatine is supplemented at once, in which case doses should be spread out over the day and taken with meals. There do exist deficiency symptoms that result in mental retardation. Creatine is quite well-studied, and seems safe and effective in enhancing some aspects of performance. Do you need to cycle creatine? Read full answer to "Do you need to cycle creatine?

Is creatine a steroid? No; not at all. It bears no relation to a steroid structurally or in its actions. Read full answer to "Is creatine a steroid? What happens if I go off of creatine? Read full answer to "What happens if I go off of creatine?

Can creatine cause cancer? Read full answer to "Can creatine cause cancer? Read full answer to "Is creatine safe? Does caffeine counteract creatine? Read full answer to "Does caffeine counteract creatine? When should I take creatine? Read full answer to "When should I take creatine? Do I need to load creatine? It is not needed, it can be used as diagnosis to see if you 'respond' to creatine or to get slightly quicker benefits but in the long run loading is not a requirement of creatine supplementation.

No harm in it either, except perhaps digestive discomfort Read full answer to "Do I need to load creatine? Does creatine benefit elite athletes? Creatine benefits all exercise for all individuals when it is strength based.

However, this benefit does appear to be less noticeable to elite athletes than it does to novice athletes. Read full answer to "Does creatine benefit elite athletes? What is the best form of creatine? The best form of creatine is basic Creatine Monohydrate , which is the cheapest, yet on par with many other forms. No other form has enough evidence to claim it is better than Monohydrate. Read full answer to "What is the best form of creatine? What is creatine nitrate? Creatine nitrate is simply a more water-soluble version of creatine.

It is not more potent than regular creatine monohydrate. Read full answer to "What is creatine nitrate? Does creatine cause kidney problems? Studies looking at creatine and the kidneys have failed to demonstrate any harm from supplementation except for some plausible interactions with diuretic pharmaceuticals.

Read full answer to "Does creatine cause kidney problems? What beneficial compounds are primarily found in animal products? Read full answer to "What beneficial compounds are primarily found in animal products?

Does creatine cause hair loss? Read full answer to "Does creatine cause hair loss? Can creatine increase your testosterone levels? There is no convincing evidence that creatine can increase your testosterone levels. Read full answer to "Can creatine increase your testosterone levels? The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies it excludes animal and in vitro studies to tell you what effects creatine has on your body, and how strong these effects are. Creatine phosphate phosphocreatine functions as a phosphate reservoir.

Beef, with minimal visible connective tissue: Creatine from food is digested slower than creatine taken as a supplement, but total bioavailability is identical. Creatine is a small peptide — a structure composed of amino acids. Specifically, creatine is composed of L-arginine , glycine , and methionine.

Its molecular structure is depicted below. Depending on the cooking temperature and the presence of a reducing sugar, such as glycogen, carnosine and aspartic acid will degrade into acrylic acid and acrylamides. Creatine can also be converted to the biologically inactive creatinine through the removal of a water molecule. Finally, creatine can also participate in the formation of heterocyclic amines, [17] a process that can be partially inhibited by marination. Carbohydrates provide quick energy in an anaerobic environment high-intensity exercise , while fats provide sustained energy during periods of high oxygen availability low-intensity exercise or rest.

The breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and ketones produces ATP adenosine triphosphate. By increasing the overall pool of cellular phosphocreatine, creatine supplementation can accelerate the reycling of ADP into ATP.

Since ATP stores are rapidly depleted during intense muscular effort, one of the major benefits of creatine supplementation is its ability to regenerate ATP stores faster, which can promote increased strength and power output. Creatine storage capacity is limited, though it increases as muscle mass increases.

Without supplementation, creatine is formed primarily in the liver, with minor contributions from the pancreas and kidneys. The two amino acids, glycine and arginine , combine via the enzyme Arginine: Glycine amidinotransferase AGAT to form ornithine and guanidoacetate. This is the first of two steps in creatine synthesis, and although rare, any deficiency of this enzyme can result in mild mental retardation and muscular weakness. Guanidoacetate made by AGAT then receives a methyl donation from S-adenosyl methionine via the enzyme guanidinoacetate methyltransferase GAMT , which produces S-adenosylhomocysteine as a byproduct and creatine.

For the most part, the above reactions occur in the liver, [33] where most systemic creatine is synthesized, but the AGAT and GAMT enzymes have been located in lesser amounts in kidney and pancreatic tissue the extra-hepatic synthesis locales [34].

Neurons also possess the capability to synthesize their own creatine. As mentioned above, S-adenylmethionine must be converted to S-adenylhomocysteine in order for guanidoacetate to convert into creatine, during a process known as methylation. Creatine supplementation alleviates the intrinsic burden of producing creatine. Supplementation reduces the expected increase in homocysteine [38] after intense exercise and may be a reason why creatine is seen as cardioprotective around the time of exercise.

Creatine is stored in the body in the form of creatine and as creatine phosphate, otherwise known as phosphocreatine, which is the creatine molecule bound to a phosphate group. Creatine kinase enzymes of which there are numerous isozymes exist in both the mitochondria and the cytosol of the cell.

Supplementation of creatine monohydrate increases stores of both of these compounds in myocytes, neurons, eyes, kidneys and testes. Increasing cellular survival preventing ATP depletion allows cells to survive longer against hypoxia, oxidative damage, and some toxins that damage neurons and skeletal muscle cells is a mechanism of creatine supplementation mediated via creatine-kinase.

Expressing the creatine-kinase enzyme in cells that do not normally express it and thus enabling these cells to use creatine exerts protective effects, [52] while inhibiting this enzyme reduces survival rates.

Creatine kinase appears to be subject to sexual dimorphism, meaning differences exist in males and females, with males exhibiting increased enzyme activity. Black people appear to have higher activity of the creatine kinase system compared to both white and hispanic people, with hispanic people having greater levels than whites.

When splitting a sample into exercisers and non-exercisers, it appears that exercise as a pre-requisite precedes a higher range of activity. Inactive people tend to be on the lower end of creatine kinase activity and relatively clustered in magnitude, while exercise generally increases activity, but also introduces a larger range of possible activity. Creatine is also a neurological nutrient.

People who cannot produce endogenous creatine suffer from a form of mental retardation with autistic-like symptoms due to deficiencies in the enzymes of creatine synthesis AGAT or GAMT. The main storage area of creatine in the human body is the skeletal contractile muscle, which holds true for other animals.

Therefore, consumption of skeletal muscle meat products is the main human dietary source of creatine. Since vegetarians and vegans lack the main source of dietary creatine intake, which has been estimated to supply half of the daily requirements of creatine in normal people, both vegetarians and vegans have been reported to have lower levels of creatine. Due to this relative deficiency-state in vegetarians and vegans, some aspects of creatine supplementation are seen as more akin to normalizing a deficiency, rather than providing the benefits of supplementation.

In young vegetarians, but not omnivores, creatine supplementation can enhance cognition. Creatine monohydrate is the most common form of creatine, and if not otherwise mentioned is the default form of creatine used in most studies on creatine. This allows more creatine to be present in a concentrated formula, like capsules. In regard to supplementation, it is equivalent to creatine monohydrate.

Creatine hydrochloride Creatine HCl is a form of creatine characterized by the molecule being bound to a hydrochloric acid moiety. It is claimed to require a lower dosage than creatine monohydrate, but this claim has not been tested. Creatine hydrochloride likely forms into free creatine and free hydrochloric acid in the aqueous environment of the stomach, which would mean it is approximately bioequivalent to creatine monohydrate.

Liquid creatine has been shown to be less effective than creatine monohydrate. Buffered creatine Kre-Alkylyn is the brand name is touted to enhance the effects of creatine monohydrate due to a higher pH level, which enables better translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane and more accumulation in muscle tissues. This claim has not been demonstrated at this time, and a recent comparative study of buffered creatine against basic creatine monohydrate found no significant differences between the two in 36 resistance trained individuals, in regard to the effects or the accumulation of creatine in muscle tissue.

Creatine ethyl ester increases muscle levels of creatine to a lesser degree than creatine monohydrate. Creatine ethyl ester is more a pronutrient for creatinine rather than creatine, [75] and was originally created in an attempt to bypass the creatine transporter.

It is currently being studied for its potential as a treatment for situations in which there is a lack of creatine transporters alongside cyclocreatine as another possible example. Direct studies on creatine ethyl ester show it to be less effective than creatine monohydrate, on par with a placebo. Creatine ethyl ester is Magnesium-chelated creatine typically exerts the same ergogenic effects as creatine monohydrate at low doses. Creatine nitrate is a form of creatine in which a nitrate NO3 moiety is bound to the creatine molecule, which has been demonstrated to enhance solubility in water by approximately fold, with the pH of 2.

Creatine citrate is creatine bound to citric acid, or citrate. Creatine citrate does not differ greatly from monohydrate in regard to absorption or kinetics. The increased water solubility may play a factor in palatability.

It can be found in varying ratios of creatine: Creatine malate is the creatine molecule bound to malic acid. There might be some ergogenic benefits from malic acid on its own, [92] but this has not been investigated in conjunction with creatine.

Creatine pyruvate also known as creatine 2-oxopropanoate in an isomolar dose relative to creatine monohydrate has been shown to produce higher plasma levels of creatine peak and AUC with no discernible differences in absorption or excretion values. Polyethylene glycosylated creatine seems to be as effective as creatine monohydrate at a lower dose 1.

Creatine gluconate is a form of creatine supplementation in which the creatine molecule is bound to a glucose molecule. It currently does not have any studies conducted on it. Cyclocreatine 1-carboxymethyliminoimidazolidine is a synthetic analogue of creatine in a cyclic form.

It serves as a substrate for the creatine kinase enzyme system, acting as a creatine mimetic. The structure of cyclocreatine is fairly flat planar , which aids in passive diffusion across membranes. It has been used with success in an animal study, where mice suffered from a SLC6A8 creatine transporter at the blood brain barrier deficiency, which is not responsive to standard creatine supplementation. This increased permeability is noted in glioma cells, where it exerts anti-cancer effects related to cell swelling, [] [] and in other membranes, such as breast cancer cells [] and skeletal contractile muscle cells.

In regard to bioenergetics, phosphorylated cyclocreatine appears to have less affinity for the creatine kinase enzyme than phosphorylated creatine in terms of donating the high energy phosphate group about fold less affinity despite the process of receiving phosphorylation being similar. When creatine is absorbed it pulls water in with it, causing cells to swell.

Glycogen synthesis is known to respond directly and positively to cellular swelling. Inducing hypertonicity a reduction in cellular swelling is known to actually increase the mRNA of the creatine transporter, [] thought to be due to increasing cellular creatine uptake to normalize creatine levels. This has been noted in both muscle cells and endothelial cells, but is thought to apply to all cells. This regulation of creatine uptake is similar to other osmolytic agents such as myo - inositol or taurine , which have their uptake into cells enhanced during periods of hypertonia in order to increase cellular swelling.

Phosphocreatine, the higher energy form of creatine, can associate with and protect cell membranes. In a later study, it was found that biologically relevant concentrations mM of creatine bind synthetic membranes with lipid compositions mimicking the inner mitochondrial membrane or plasma membrane in a concentration-dependent manner.

This also conferred a degree of protection, increasing membrane stability in response to challenge from a number of destabilizing agents. Phosphocreatine was more effective than creatine in this context, although both were able to bind and stabilize membranes. Cyclocreatine an analogue of creatine has been shown to protect microtubules in a cell and protect its structure, but it is not known whether these benefits can be expanded to creatine.

Creatine is involved indirectly in whole body methylation processes. This is due to creatine synthesis having a relatively large methyl cost, as the creatine precursor known as guanidinoacetate GAA requires a methyl donation from S-adenosyl methionine SAMe in order to produce creatine. This may require up to half of the methyl groups available in the human body. SAMe is the primary methyl donor in the human body, and supplements that preserve SAMe such as trimethylglycine ; TMG promote a variety of benefits in the human body, like a reduction in homocysteine and reduced risk of fatty liver.

Creatine has been implicated in both reducing homocysteine [] and preventing fatty liver in rodents [] , thought to be secondary to preserving SAMe. Creatine supplementation may be able to enhance lifespan, secondary to increasing intracellular carnosine stores. Carnosine is the metabolic compound formed from beta-alanine supplementation, and in a mouse-model for premature aging senescence-accelerated premature aging, SAMP8 creatine supplementation without any beta-alanine has been shown to increase cellular carnosine stores.

However, creatinine was noted to increase in the presence of pancreatin, a mixture of pancreatic enzymes. The specific mechanism of intestinal uptake for creatine is not clear, although transporters have been identified in rat jujenum, and confirmed at the mRNA level in humans.

There is also evidence to suggest that increased ingestion of creatine leads to an increased fecal creatine value, suggesting that the intestinal uptake can be saturated. Researchers observed that it took 2. SLC6A8 is encoded by the gene present on the Xq28 region of the human X-chromosome and is expressed in most tissues.

Creatine transport has been shown to increase when muscle creatine stores are depleted. This was only noted to occur in muscle with particular fiber types soleus and red gastrocnemius , while other fiber types, such as white grastrocnemius, did not show any clear trend.

In muscle cells, the creatine transporter is predominantly localized to the sarcolemmal membrane. People who get a sufficiently high influx of creatine are known as responders. Creatine is only taken up by its transporter, and changes in the activity level of this transporter are wholly causative of changes in creatine uptake. The transporter is regulated by mostly cytosolic factors as well as some external factors that affect creatine transport activity, [] including extracellular creatine.

The creatine transporter CrT is positively regulated by proteins known to be involved in sensing and responding to the cellular energy state, including the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR []. Some other cytokines and hormones may increase the receptor activity. These include growth hormone GH which acts upon the growth hormone receptor GHR [] [] to stimulate c-Src [] [] which directly increases the activity of the CrT via phosphorylation.

Finally, starvation nutrient deprivation for four days appears to increase activity of the creatine transporter secondary to decreasing serine phosphorylation SGK target [] with no influence on tyrosine phosphorylation c-Src target. In vitro , insulin promotes creatine uptake in mouse [] and human muscle cells. Negative regulators of the creatine transporter CrT are those that, when activated, reduce the activity of the CrT and overall creatine uptake into cells.

Although indirect, activation of AMPK has been noted to reduce the V max of the CrT without altering creatine binding, and is involved in internalizing the receptors. In contrast to kidney epithelial cells, others have reported that creatine transport is increased by AMPK in the heart, [5] indicating that CrT is likely regulated in a cell-and tissue specific manner in response to local energy demands. Composition of lipids in human serum and adipose tissue during prolonged feeding of a diet high in unsaturated fat.

The Journal of Lipid Research Jan;7 1: Baylin A et al. Adipose tissue biomarkers of fatty acid intake. Witting LA, Lee L. Recommended dietary allowance for vitamin E: Berry EM et al. The relationship of dietary fat to plasma lipid levels as studied by factor analysis of adipose tissue fatty acid composition in a free-living population of middle-aged American men.

London SJ et al. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and diet in postmenopausal US women. Garland M et al. The relation between dietary intake and adipose tissue composition of selected fatty acids in US women. Knutsen SF et al. Comparison of adipose tissue fatty acids with dietary fatty acids as measured by hour recall and food frequency questionnaire in black and white Adventists: Annals of Epidemiology Feb;13 2: Ren J et al.

The Journal of Lipid Research Sep;49 9: Toll-like receptor-2 deficiency enhances non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

BMC Gastroenterology May 28;10 1: Dietary saturated fatty acids: Gastroenterology Aug; 2: Dietary saturated fat reduces alcoholic hepatotoxicity in rats by altering fatty acid metabolism and membrane composition. Role of adiponectin in the protective action of dietary saturated fat against alcoholic fatty liver in mice.

Hepatology Sep;42 3: Effect of dietary fat saturation on ldl oxidation and monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells in vitro. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology Nov;16 Mata P et al.

Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated n—6 fatty acid-enriched diets modify LDL oxidation and decrease human coronary smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology Oct;17 Dietary lipid profile is a determinant of tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition and rate of weight gain in rats. Journal of Nutrition Mar; 3: Hat tip to George Henderson: Data from tables 1 and 3. The Journal of Biological Chemistry Mar 14; Hat tip to Jamie Scott: Fatty acids, the immune response, and autoimmunity: Mechanisms by which botanical lipids affect inflammatory disorders.

Associations between fatty acids in colostrum and breast milk and risk of allergic disease. Wijga AH et al. Breast milk fatty acids and allergic disease in preschool children: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Feb; 2: Increasing homicide rates and linoleic acid consumption among five Western countries, — Lipids Dec;39 The omega ratio, September 2, , http: Linoleic acid, a dietary n—6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the aetiology of ulcerative colitis: Gut Dec;58 Effect of isocaloric low fat diet on prostate cancer xenograft progression in a hormone deprivation model.

Journal of Urology Apr; 4: Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis. BMC Cancer Jan 30;9: Corn oil in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease. British Medical Journal Jun 12;1 Effect of the Anti-Coronary Club program on coronary heart disease. Low fat, low cholesterol diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. The data were subsequently re-analyzed and omega-6 fats appeared even more harmful.

Ramsden CE et al. Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: Test of effect of lipid lowering by diet on cardiovascular risk. The Minnesota Coronary Survey. Arteriosclerosis Jan-Feb;9 1: Controlled trial of a diet high in unsaturated fat for prevention of atherosclerotic complications. The Lancet Nov 16;2 Incidence of cancer in men on a diet high in polyunsaturated fat. The Lancet Mar 6;1 The Oslo diet-heart study: Circulation 42 —, http: The effect of plasma cholesterol lowering diet in male survivors of myocardial infarction: Acta Medica Scandinavica, Supplementum ; The Lancet Sep 28;2 Turpeinen O et al.

Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease: International Journal of Epidemiology Jun;8 2: Miettinen M et al. Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease in women: International Journal of Epidemiology Mar;12 1: The Finnish mental hospital trial, July 9, , http: Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Excess omega-3 fatty acid consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation caused shorter life span and abnormal ABRs in old adult offspring.

Neurotoxicology and Teratology March—April;32 2: Long-term intake of fish oil increases oxidative stress and decreases lifespan in senescence-accelerated mice. Nutrition Mar;27 3: Lack of benefit of dietary advice to men with angina: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Feb;57 2: Dietary fat and health: Lands WE, Lifestyle diversity, http: Omega fats and cardiovascular disease, September 6, , http: Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry Apr;17 4: Watkins BA et al.

Journal of Nutrition Sep; 9: Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry Mar; 3: Su KP et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Apr;69 4: Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder.

A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. European Neuropsychopharmacology Aug;13 4: Stoll AL et al. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: Archives of General Psychiatry May;56 5: Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Hamazaki T et al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults. A placebo-controlled double-blind study.

Journal of Clinical Investigation Feb 15;97 4: Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: The American Journal of Psychiatry Jan; 1: Hallahan B et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent self-harm. Single-centre double-blind randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry Feb; Omega-3 fatty acids improve the diagnosis-related clinical outcome.

Critical Care Medicine Apr;34 4: Experimental Medicine and Biology Maywood Jun; 6: Improved outcome after peripheral nerve injury in mice with increased levels of endogenous? The Journal of Neuroscience Jan 11;32 2: Fat—1 transgenic mice with elevated omega-3 fatty acids are protected from allergic airway responses.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Sep; 9: High pancreatic n-3 fatty acids prevent STZ-induced diabetes in fat-1 mice: Diabetes Apr;60 4: Increased dietary intake of omegapolyunsaturated fatty acids reduces pathological retinal angiogenesis.

Nature Medicine Jul;13 7: Transgenic mice rich in endogenous omega-3 fatty acids are protected from colitis.

Melanoma growth is reduced in fat-1 transgenic mice: Berquin IM et al. Modulation of prostate cancer genetic risk by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Journal of Clinical Investigation Jul; 7: Habbel P et al. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses arachidonic acid-induced proliferation of LST human colon carcinoma cells. World Journal of Gastroenterology Mar 7;15 9: Griffitts J et al. Non-mammalian fat-1 gene prevents neoplasia when introduced to a mouse hepatocarcinogenesis model: Omega-3 fatty acids prevent liver neoplasia.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Oct; Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: Circulation Feb 16;99 6: Mediterranean dietary pattern in a randomized trial: Archives of Internal Medicine Jun 8; Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: The Lancet Sep 30;2 Maintenance of lower proportions of n — 6 eicosanoid precursors in phospholipids of human plasma in response to added dietary n — 3 fatty acids.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Dec 10; 2: Circulating nonesterified fatty acid level as a predictive risk factor for sudden death in the population. Circulation Aug 14; 7: Comparison of monounsaturated fat with carbohydrates as a replacement for saturated fat in subjects with a high metabolic risk profile: The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men.

Low-fat high-fiber diet decreased serum and urine androgens in men. Growth hormone effect on the role of fat in nitrogen metabolism. American Journal of Physiology Nov; 5: Growth hormone and protein metabolism.

Clinical Nutrition Dec;28 6: From GH to Billy Ghrelin. Cell Metabolism Aug;10 2: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease.

Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese: Inverse association of dietary fat with development of ischemic stroke in men. Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Hat tip to Richard D Feinman: What if saturated fat is not the problem? Ketogenicity of soybean oil, coconut oil and their respective fatty acids for the chick.

Journal of Nutrition Dec; Medium-chain triglyceride MCT ketogenic therapy. Epilepsia Nov;49 suppl 8: In vitro killing of Candida albicans by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Nov;45 Liu S et al. Biological control of phytopathogenic fungi by fatty acids. Mycopathologia Aug; 2: The effects of saturated fatty acids on Giardia duodenalis trophozoites in vitro. Parasitology Research Oct;97 3: Medium-chain fatty acids decrease colonization and invasion through hilA suppression shortly after infection of chickens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jun;70 6: Gantois I et al. Butyrate specifically down-regulates salmonella pathogenicity island 1 gene expression. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jan;72 1: Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: Journal of Investigative Dermatology Oct; Antibacterial interactions of monolaurin with commonly used antimicrobials and food components. Journal of Food Science Sep;74 7: In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis by fatty acids and monoglycerides.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Sep;42 9: Antibacterial actions of fatty acids and monoglycerides against Helicobacter pylori. Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Jan;31 1: The antimicrobial function of milk lipids. Advances in Nutritional Research ; Studies on fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood lipids of Polynesians.

I have heard that coconut is bad for the heart and that it is good for the heart. Harvard Heart Letter Sep;17 1: Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and risk of myocardial infarction. Value of low-density lipoprotein particle number and size as predictors of coronary artery disease in apparently healthy men and women: Journal of the American College of Cardiology Feb 6;49 5: Diabetes Care Nov;23 Consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols decreases body fat and blood triglyceride in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Jul;63 7: The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: Medium chain triglycerides MCT in aging and arteriosclerosis.

The Tokelau Island migrant study. International Journal of Epidemiology Sep;3 3: Stanhope JM et al. The Tokelau Island Migrant Study: Journal of Chronic Diseases ;34 2—3: Niacin stimulates adiponectin secretion through the GPRA receptor.

Ahmed K et al. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Nov;30 Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids Jul;44 7: Safe and effective use of the ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex defects. Epilepsia Jan;48 1: Sudden cardiac death in association with the ketogenic diet.

Pediatric Neurology Dec;39 6: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry Sep;9 3: Formulation, stability, and administration of parenteral nutrition with new lipid emulsions. Nutrition in Clinical Practice Oct-Nov;24 5: Japanese Journal of Pharmacology Oct;87 2: White H, Venkatesh B. Critical Care Apr 6;15 2: Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet. Behavioural Pharmacology Sep;17 5—6: Chronic in vitro ketosis is neuroprotective but not anticonvulsant.

Journal of Neurochemistry May; 4: The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies. Brain Research Reviews Mar;59 2: ScienceDaily, October 22, , www. Ketogenic diet prevents cardiac arrest-induced cerebral ischemic neurodegeneration. Journal of Neural Transmission Jul; 7: More fat and fewer seizures: The Lancet Neurology Jul;3 7: Brain Research Aug 25; Costantini LC et al. BMC Neuroscience Dec 3;9 suppl 2: A ketogenic diet as a potential novel therapeutic intervention in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

BMC Neuroscience Apr 3;7: Current Treatment Options in Neurology Nov;10 6: Factors influencing the evolution of West syndrome to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Pediatric Neurology Aug;41 2: Application of a ketogenic diet in children with autistic behavior: Journal of Child Neurology Feb;18 2: The antidepressant properties of the ketogenic diet. Biological Psychiatry Dec 15;56 The ketogenic diet may have mood-stabilizing properties. Medical Hypotheses Dec;57 6: Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: Cancer as a metabolic disease.

Implementing a ketogenic diet based on medium-chain triglyceride oil in pediatric patients with cancer. Journal of the American Dietetic Association Jun;95 6: Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer through calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics Sep;5 suppl 1: Effects of a ketogenic diet on tumor metabolism and nutritional status in pediatric oncology patients: Journal of the American College of Nutrition Apr;14 2: Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: Fasting vs dietary restriction in cellular protection and cancer treatment: Oncogene Jul 28;30 Raffaghello L et al.

Fasting and differential chemotherapy protection in patients. Cell Cycle Nov 15;9 Johnson JB et al. Pretreatment with alternate day modified fast will permit higher dose and frequency of cancer chemotherapy and better cure rates. Medical Hypotheses Apr;72 4: Hat tip to Mario Renato Iwakura.

Long-term use of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy. Hat tip Evelyn Kocur aka CarbSane. A blinded, crossover study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia Feb;50 2: Branched chain amino acids as adjunctive therapy to ketogenic diet in epilepsy: Journal of Child Neurology Oct;24 A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing. Nature Mar 4; Bowel disease, part IV: More on fecal transplants, November 3, , http: Hat tip to Dr.

A cautionary tale of mucus fore and aft, August 30, , www. Role of dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids in the colon. Current Pharmaceutical Design ;9 4: Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice. Diabetes Jul;58 7: Scheppach W et al. Effect of butyrate enemas on the colonic mucosa in distal ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology Jul; 1: Physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids immediately suppress colonic epithelial permeability.

British Journal of Nutrition Aug; 2: Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects. Effects of short chain fatty acids on a new human colon carcinoma cell line LIM Gut Dec;27 Mechanisms of primary cancer prevention by butyrate and other products formed during gut flora—mediated fermentation of dietary fibre.

Mutation Research Jul-Aug; 1: Cancer Research Jun 1;67 The Journal of Neuroscience Oct 15;23 Modulatory effect of butyric acid—a product of dietary fiber fermentation in experimentally induced diabetic rats.

The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry Sep;13 9: Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium butyrate on human monocytes: Hyaluronan mixed esters of butyric and retinoic acid affording myocardial survival and repair without stem cell transplantation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry Mar 26; Butyric acid from the diet: Rarity of colon cancer in Africans is associated with low animal product consumption, not fiber.

The American Journal of Gastroenterology May;94 5: Dietary fiber and progression of atherosclerosis: Blueberry husks, rye bran and multi-strain probiotics affect the severity of colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology ;44 Vancomycin-resistant enterococci exploit antibiotic-induced innate immune deficits. Nature Oct 9; Fats and absorbing endotoxin, February 23, , http: Potential prebiotic properties of almond Amygdalus communis L.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jul;74 Mucin degradation by Bifidobacterium strains isolated from the human intestinal microbiota. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Mar;74 6: Colonization of mucin by human intestinal bacteria and establishment of biofilm communities in a two-stage continuous culture system.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology Nov;71 Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: Hat tip Melissa McEwen, The human colon in evolution: Archives of Internal Medicine Jun 27; Late-life alcohol consumption and year mortality.

Clinical and Experimental Research Nov;34 Hat tip to Robin Hanson: Alcohol is healthy, September 2, , www. Alcohol dosing and total mortality in men and women: Archives of Internal Medicine Dec 11—25; Camargo CA et al.

Prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in US male physicians. Archives of Internal Medicine Jan 13; 1: Yuan JM et al.

Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China. BMJ Jan 4; Doll R et al.

Mortality in relation to consumption of alcohol: BMJ Oct 8; Hat tip to David J. Alcohol problems and solutions, www2. Alcohol consumption and mortality. Characteristics of drinking groups. Wann sollte man fettig essen? Athleten-Interview - Maud Maria Descheemaeker. Christian Kellenberger - Der Weg ist das Ziel. Athleten Interview - Eve Lewis. Athleten-Interview mit Jürgen Reis - Part 1. Die Wahrheit über Kohlenhydrate. Auch ein schöner Rücken kann entzücken.

Die Bedeutung der Muskelreife. Cardio Training das notwendige Übel. Lebensmittel für vor und nach dem Training. Casein - ein Milchprotein aus frischer Kuhmilch. Alles über Molke Inhaltsstoffe im Fokus. Neues aus Hajos Fitnessküche. Der Natural Shake für Hardgainer.

Out-of-Season-Test beim Deutschen Meister. Short News - Sommer

Ghee Composition and its Role in the Ketogenic Diet