All medical co-morbidities were improved after LGP. The graphics card on my late-model Apple laptop could literally not cope with the load. For patients completing 1 year of follow-up, the percentage of excess weight loss was The authors concluded that endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty ESG for treatment of obesity is feasible. Retrieved 23 July Smoking cessation is especially important in obese persons, as obesity places them at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Adam Drake wrote an engaging blog post about analyzing 2 million chess games.
The decrease in strength of correlation was felt to be due to the effects of globalization. A similar relationship is seen among US states: Many explanations have been put forth for associations between BMI and social class. It is thought that in developed countries, the wealthy are able to afford more nutritious food, they are under greater social pressure to remain slim, and have more opportunities along with greater expectations for physical fitness.
In undeveloped countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor, and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns. A correlation in BMI changes over time has been found among friends, siblings, and spouses. Smoking has a significant effect on an individual's weight. Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4. In the United States the number of children a person has is related to their risk of obesity.
In the developing world urbanization is playing a role in increasing rate of obesity. Malnutrition in early life is believed to play a role in the rising rates of obesity in the developing world. Consistent with cognitive epidemiological data, numerous studies confirm that obesity is associated with cognitive deficits. The study of the effect of infectious agents on metabolism is still in its early stages.
Gut flora has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans. There is an indication that gut flora in obese and lean individuals can affect the metabolic potential.
This apparent alteration of the metabolic potential is believed to confer a greater capacity to harvest energy contributing to obesity. Whether these differences are the direct cause or the result of obesity has yet to be determined unequivocally. An association between viruses and obesity has been found in humans and several different animal species.
The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined. Certain aspects of personality are associated with being obese.
There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity. In particular, they and other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamus , a region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. There are several circuits within the hypothalamus that contribute to its role in integrating appetite, the melanocortin pathway being the most well understood.
The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity.
The World Health Organization WHO predicts that overweight and obesity may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant cause of poor health.
Solutions look at changing the factors that cause excess food energy consumption and inhibit physical activity. Efforts include federally reimbursed meal programs in schools, limiting direct junk food marketing to children,  and decreasing access to sugar-sweetened beverages in schools.
Many organizations have published reports pertaining to obesity. This is a comprehensive evidence-based guideline to address the management and prevention of overweight and obesity in adults and children.
Comprehensive approaches are being looked at to address the rising rates of obesity. The Obesity Policy Action OPA framework divides measure into 'upstream' policies, 'midstream' policies, 'downstream' policies.
The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss. Five medications have evidence for long-term use orlistat , lorcaserin , liraglutide , phentermine—topiramate , and naltrexone—bupropion. The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. In earlier historical periods obesity was rare, and achievable only by a small elite, although already recognised as a problem for health.
But as prosperity increased in the Early Modern period , it affected increasingly larger groups of the population. In the WHO formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic. Once considered a problem only of high-income countries, obesity rates are rising worldwide and affecting both the developed and developing world.
Obesity is from the Latin obesitas , which means "stout, fat, or plump". Ancient Greek medicine recognizes obesity as a medical disorder, and records that the Ancient Egyptians saw it in the same way. It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance  as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution it was realized that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers.
During the 20th century, as populations reached their genetic potential for height, weight began increasing much more than height, resulting in obesity. Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Ancient Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery. During Christian times the food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. People of all ages can face social stigmatization, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers.
The weight that is viewed as an ideal has become lower since the s. In Britain, the weight at which people considered themselves to be overweight was significantly higher in than in Obesity is still seen as a sign of wealth and well-being in many parts of Africa. This has become particularly common since the HIV epidemic began.
Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent "fatness" in the people of the time. This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese. These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility. After centuries of obesity being synonymous with wealth and social status, slimness began to be seen as the desirable standard.
In addition to its health impacts, obesity leads to many problems including disadvantages in employment   and increased business costs. These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals, to corporations, to governments.
Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity-related disease. However, the longer people live, the more medical costs they incur.
Researchers, therefore, conclude that reducing obesity may improve the public's health, but it is unlikely to reduce overall health spending.
Obesity can lead to social stigmatization and disadvantages in employment. The most common injuries in this group were due to falls and lifting, thus affecting the lower extremities, wrists or hands, and backs. Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted. Specific industries, such as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns. Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width.
With the American Medical Association 's classification of obesity as a chronic disease,  it is thought that health insurance companies will more likely pay for obesity treatment, counseling and surgery, and the cost of research and development of fat treatment pills or gene therapy treatments should be more affordable if insurers help to subsidize their cost. In , The European Court of Justice ruled that morbid obesity is a disability.
The Court said that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory.
The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese. A number of organizations exist that promote the acceptance of obesity. It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination.
The American legal system, however, has decided that the potential public health costs exceed the benefits of extending this anti-discrimination law to cover obesity. In the New York Times published an article on the Global Energy Balance Network , a nonprofit founded in that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy.
Hand and Steven N. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child. As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity.
Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity. Obesity in pets is common in many countries.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the medical journal, see Obesity journal. Relative risk of death over 10 years for white men left and women right who have never smoked in the United States by BMI.
Sedentary lifestyle and Exercise trends. Social determinants of obesity. World obesity prevalence among males left and females right in Percentage of the population either overweight or obese by year. Retrieved 2 February Archives of General Psychiatry.
The New England Journal of Medicine. Criteria and classification of obesity in Japan and Asia-Oceania. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. Treatment of the Obese Patient Contemporary Endocrinology.
Retrieved 5 April Frontiers of Hormone Research. Recognizes Obesity as a Disease". Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 15 February Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.
Center for disease control and prevention. Retrieved 6 April The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Formulation and Treatment in Clinical Health Psychology. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences.
American Journal of Medical Genetics. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. European clinical practice guidelines" PDF.
Archived from the original PDF on 26 April International Journal of Obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis.
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. Current Pain and Headache Reports Review. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports Review. European Journal of Nutrition.
Public Health Nutrition Research Support. Asian Journal of Andrology. Neurourology and Urodynamics Review. The Journal of Urology Review. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Review. Seminars in Dialysis Review.
Preventive Services Task Force June American Family Physician Review. The American Journal of Cardiology Review. American Heart Journal Meta-analysis, Review. American Heart Journal Research Support. Public Health Reports Research Support. International Journal of Obesity Review. Calorie supply per capita". Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 18 October United States Department of Agriculture.
Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 10 January Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 9 July American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Diabetes Care Meta-analysis, Review. Agriculture Information Bulletin No.
Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 30 July Archived from the original on 18 December A Global Public Health Problem". Retrieved 22 February Prevalence, trends and environmental influences on child and youth physical activity Review. Medicine and Sport Science. Annual Review of Public Health Review. American Journal of Public Health.
European Society of Sleep Technologists. Archived from the original on 13 April Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology Review. However, it is also clear that genetics greatly influences this situation, giving individuals in the same 'obesogenic' environment significantly different risks of becoming obese.
In addition, childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of premature death and disability in adulthood. The WHO adds, What is not widely known is that the risk of health problems starts when someone is only very slightly overweight, and that the likelihood of problems increases as someone becomes more and more overweight. Many of these conditions cause long-term suffering for individuals and families. In addition, the costs for the health care system can be extremely high.
See the obesity and overweight facts and What are the health consequences of being overweight? As the report says bluntly, food safety may scandalise the country and attract political attention, but it is the routine premature death by degenerative disease that extracts the greater ill-health toll p. This phenomena is seen in many rich nations, though Britain comes out worse than most on many such indicators p.
These costs are made up of. The report however, does not include costs from the effects of wider industrial agricultural policies that have given rise to BSE, Foot and Mouth disease, or the cost to the environment, etc.
New York Times food writer Mark Bittman summarizes how this is a global issue because over-consumption and over-industrialized-production of unhealthy foods is also putting the entire planet at risk:. Experts believe that obesity is responsible for more ill health even than smoking , the BBC has noted, which ties in with the World Watch quotation above about health costs for obesity in the U. Taking a more global view, the prestigious British Medical Journal BMJ looks at various attempts to tackle obesity and notes that obesity is caused by a complex and multitude of inter-related causes , fuelled by economic and psychosocial factors as well as increased availability of energy dense food and reduced physical activity.
His wish that the TED Prize speech asks him to share was to help to create a strong, sustainable movement to educate every child about food, inspire families to cook again and empower people everywhere to fight obesity. He explained this in his video:. Given the complex, inter-related causes of obesity, addressing it also requires a multi-pronged approach:. Dealing with inequalities in obesity requires a different policy agenda from the one currently being promoted. Action is needed that is grounded in principles of health equity.
Missing in most obesity prevention strategies is the recognition that obesity—and its unequal distribution—is the consequence of a complex system that is shaped by how society organises its affairs. Action must tackle the inequities in this system, aiming to ensure an equitable distribution of ample and nutritious global and national food supplies; built environments that lend themselves to easy access and uptake of healthier options by all; and living and working conditions that produce more equal material and psychosocial resources between and within social groups.
This will require action at global, national, and local levels. While important, on its own, they feel it is not sufficient; there is limited evidence for sustainability [of this direct approach] and transferability to other settings, for example. Furthermore, the recent UK Foresight Report makes clear the complexity of drivers that produce obesity; it highlights that most are societal issues and therefore require societal responses.
National policies typically aimed at healthier food production include targeted and appropriate domestic subsidies. Ireland is an example of the also-needed multi-agency approach with their Healthy Food for All initiative seeking to promote access, availability, and affordability of healthy food for low income groups.
However, a key challenge they note is the lack of systematic evaluation of initiatives, particularly with an equity focus, [which] makes it difficult to generalize policy solutions in this field. So while there are many measures possible at many levels, a cultural shift in attitude is needed. The benefits of a healthier diet is obvious.
Dean Ornish, a clinical professor and founder of the Preventive Medicine Research Institute, explains, the large number of cardiovascular diseases that kill so many around the world is not only preventable, but reversible, often by simply changing our diets and lifestyle:.
Another BMJ article notes in a prognosis in obesity that we need to move a little more and eat a little less:. New economic analyses help dispel the myth of people getting fatter but eating less. The first 20 years of our adult obesity epidemic, from the s to s, was explained mainly by declining physical activity: Americans believe they have less time to do things but in reality are spending more time watching television and being inactive. Subsequently, the obesity epidemic appears to have been fuelled by largely increased food consumption.
A paradoxical increase and deregulation of appetite during inactivity has been matched by an increasing supply of food at lower real cost. Consumption of supersize food portions will accelerate this process, reflecting a failure of the free market that demands government intervention. Award-winning journalist Michael Pollan argues in an interview that not only is what you eat important, but how you eat, as well:.
At the end of the industrial food chain, you need an industrial eater. What you eat, and how you eat are equally important issues. There is a lot of talk and interesting comparisons drawn between us and the French on the subject of food. They live a little bit longer, they have less obesity, less heart disease. Well, according to the people who study this: They eat smaller portions; they do not snack as a rule; they do not eat alone.
When you eat alone, you tend to eat more. So the French show you can eat just about whatever you want, as long as you do it in moderation. That strikes me as a liberating message. We have a food system here that is all about quantity, rather than quality. Maybe this hints at how extreme the problem might be for a medical doctor to be so extreme in a possible solution, as there are problems with this type of suggestion.
But the underlying concern of the doctor is still important. At the end of April , the British government urged the public to exercise five times a week. Levels of physical activity among the general population have fallen significantly over the past 25 years the government had also noted. Compelling scientific evidence shows that more active people are less likely to become obese and develop heart disease. And many resources are deployed to support that industry.
This is another example of hidden waste. Yet, the political will to be able to change certain cultural habits and to take on powerful industries promoting such habits that lead to these problems, is where the challenge lies.
In theory were it not for these political and cultural challenges, the cost of addressing the problem could be quite low regular exercise, sensible eating habits, for example. But, There is not enough resolve to take on these monster industries and to force changes that will make our environment promote healthy rather than unhealthy choices when it comes to food and physical activity says Dr.
The WHO [World Health Organisation] is basically powerless to do anything about the problem other than draw attention to it and perhaps develop some recommendations that will be very difficult for governments to implement Schlundt also notes. As a small example, in November , another UK government member of Parliament had suggested a bill to ban TV ads promoting food and drink high in fat, salt and sugar aimed at young children.
This received a lot of support as well, as groups and other members of Parliament felt that self-governing by the industry was not working. Some of these groups are leading medical and related organizations in Britain. However, as the BBC also noted, a UK government minister said she was skeptical about the merits of banning junk food ads and, in concert with what the food and drink industry said, sound science was needed to ensure that this was indeed a major cause of health problems.
Encouraging healthier living and eating would be better it was noted. The food and drink industry are on the defensive because of the potential loss in sales.
However, while true, advertising is so much part of culture that it would be overly simplistic to say ads do not have an effect and that it is only through exercise and personal discipline that these issues can be overcome. Furthermore, if it is individual choice, then food companies would not need to market and create perceived food needs; the necessity to eat would be enough to drive the market.
The above example about pressure to ban advertising and the associated skepticism on its merits comes from the UK. In the US, industry has offered to self regulate.
However, it looks as though pledges to reduce junk food advertising have not been met:. The companies, Coca-Cola, Groupe Danone, Burger King, General Mills, Kellogg, Kraft Foods, Mars, Nestlé, PepsiCo, Ferrero and Unilever, agreed not to advertise food and beverages on television programs, Web sites or in print media where children under age 12 could be considered a target audience, except for products that met specific nutrition criteria.
It found that the fast food industry continues to relentlessly market to youth. The organization suggested changing the industry-defined definition of television programs that require restrictions on the type of advertising aimed at children.
Rather than restrictions only applying when the program is created solely for children, it wants a broader standard, such as the total number of children that watch a program.
That would extend the reach of child friendly advertising guidelines to such broadly popular shows as American Idol and Glee. If media regulation is proving challenging, then other ideas may too, such as some notion of tax on junk foods. The industry will of course be against such measures, instead preferring things like exercise and individual responsibility instead though an individual — often poor on time — versus professional marketing usually suggests an imbalance in available information and decision-making.
Some studies suggest that economic instruments such as price rises or taxation of unhealthy foods might have an effect, but it is not guaranteed. This review found no direct scientific evidence of a causal relationship between policy-related economic instruments and food consumption, including foods high in saturated fats. Indirect evidence suggests that such a causal relationship is plausible, though it remains to be demonstrated by rigorous studies in community settings. The documentary also went to Denmark — the first country in the world to implement such a tax — to see how it was working there, and to the US, where it explained how a proposal to tax sugary drinks like Coca Cola has met with fierce opposition.
It found that there were signs of young people losing weight in the already heavily taxed Denmark, although older adults were still gaining weight.
One potential use of the tax would be to subsidize healthier foods such as fruits and vegetables. But, a potential problem with taxing junk food is that many fruits and other healthy ingredients are often used in unhealthy foods such as sweets and sugary drinks, and even cosmetics and other products such as shampoos.