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Malnutrition
In almost all countries with available data, stunting rates are higher among boys than girls. September 12, Content source: United States Department of Agriculture. Available from InfoChem [32]. In accordance with P. For the third year in a row, there has been a rise in world hunger.

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There are also psychosocial factors that link food insecurity to obesity. The experience of not having certain or adequate access to food often causes feelings of anxiety, stress and depression, which in turn can lead to behaviours that increase the risk of overweight and obesity. Such foods have been found to have physiological effects that reduce stress in the short term. Disordered eating patterns and food deprivation are another component linking food insecurity to malnutrition.

Maternal undernutrition — as well as overweight— caused by lack of stable access to adequate diets can cause metabolic, physiological and neuroendocrine changes in children, fueling intergenerational cycle of malnutrition. The coexistence of multiple forms of malnutrition means that the two pathways described above do not work in isolation but rather impact each other. In this way, the undernutrition linked with food security might at the same time be linked with overweight and obesity.

As described, food insecurity is associated with low birthweight in infants. Low birthweight is a risk factor for child stunting, which in turn is associated with overweight and obesity later in life.

There is a need to implement and scale up interventions aimed at guaranteeing access to nutritious foods and breaking the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months and adequate complementary foods and feeding practices up to two years of age are key to ensuring normal child growth and development during this crucial window of opportunity.

Access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food must be framed as a human right, with priority given to the most vulnerable. Policies must pay special attention to the food security and nutrition of children under five, school-age children, adolescent girls and women in order to halt the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition.

A shift is needed towards nutrition-sensitive agriculture and food systems that provide safe and high quality food, promoting healthy diets for all. Last year SOFI pinpointed conflict and violence in several parts of the world as one of the main drivers of hunger and food insecurity, suggesting that efforts to fight hunger must go hand-in-hand with those to sustain peace.

They are also one of the leading causes of severe food crises. The number of extreme climate-related disasters, including extreme heat, droughts, floods and storms, has doubled since the early s.

The number of extreme climate-related disasters, including extreme heat, droughts, floods and storms, has doubled since the early s, with an average of of these events occurring every year during the period of — Total number of natural disasters that occurred in low- and middle-income countries by region and during the period — Disasters are defined as medium and large scale disasters that exceed the thresholds set for registration on the EM-DAT international disaster database.

Climate variability and extremes are already negatively undermining production of major crops in tropical regions and, without adaptation, this is expected to worsen as temperatures increase and become more extreme. In many areas, climate extremes have increased in number and intensity, particularly where average temperatures are shifting upwards: Extreme heat is associated with increased mortality, lower labour capacity, lower crop yields and other consequences that undermine food security and nutrition.

In addition to increasing temperatures and changes in rainfall, the nature of rainy seasons is also changing, specifically the timing of seasonal climate events. Within-season changes may not register as extreme climate events droughts, floods or storms but rather are aspects of climate variability that affect the growth of crops and the availability of pasture for livestock, with potentially significant implications for food security and nutrition.

Several countries — notably in Africa, Central America and Southeast Asia — experienced drought, not only through abnormally low total accumulated rainfall, but also through lower rainfall intensities and fewer days of rainfall.

Food security and nutrition indicators can clearly be associated with an extreme climate event, such as a severe drought, that critically challenges agriculture and food production. Of all natural hazards, floods, droughts and tropical storms affect food production the most. Drought, in particular, causes more than 80 percent of the total damage and losses in agriculture, especially for the livestock and crop production subsectors. In relation to extreme events, the fisheries subsector is most affected by tsunamis and storms, while most of the economic impact on forestry is caused by floods and storms.

If a drought is severe and widespread enough, it can potentially affect national food availability and access, as well as nutrition, thus magnifying the prevalence of undernourishment PoU nationally. Severe droughts are worsening global hunger and reversing progress already made.

Hunger is significantly worse in countries with agricultural systems that are highly sensitive to rainfall and temperature variability and severe drought, where the livelihood of a high proportion of the population depends on agriculture and where the country does not have in place sufficient support measures to counter the fallout.

In other words, for almost 36 percent of the countries that experienced a rise in undernourishment since , this coincided with the occurrence of severe agricultural drought. Out of 27 countries with increasing change points in the prevalence of undernourishment occurring under severe drought stress conditions, most 19 countries are in Africa, with the remaining four in Asia, three in Latin America and the Caribbean, and one in Eastern Europe.

The temperature anomalies associated with El Niño show that climate variability and extremes affect agriculture. If we look at increasing change points in the PoU time series we see that many correspond to occurrences of severe drought.

For example, for almost 36 percent of the countries that experienced a rise in undernourishment since , this coincided with the occurrence of severe drought. Most striking is the significant increase in the number of change points related to severe drought conditions in — in which nearly two-thirds of the change points occurred.

In these cases,the PoU increased from onwards, and this can be linked to severe droughts driven by El Niño in — A closer review reveals that many countries have witnessed periods of increased undernourishment over the past years; however, during the period of the ENSO event of — this change across so many countries contributed to a reversal of the PoU trend at the global level.

This association is further corroborated by a number of studies that show a strong link between drought and stunting in children. For example, drought events in Bangladesh are associated with a higher stunting rate around five and nine months after the beginning of the drought event.

In rural Zimbabwe, one- to two-year olds exposed to drought face significantly lower growth velocity compared to children of the same age living in areas with average rainfall. In sub-Saharan Africa, warmer and drier climates are related to declining food availability and increased prevalence estimates of childhood stunting. Climate variability and extremes are among the key drivers behind the rise in hunger. Exposure of countries to climate variability and extremes is also a rising trend.

In , the average of the PoU in countries with high exposure to climate shocks was 3. Even more striking is that countries with high exposure have more than doubled the number of undernourished people as those without high exposure. Prevalence unweighted and number of undernourished people in low- and middle-income countries with high and low exposure to climate extremes during the period of — Countries with high exposure are defined as being exposed to climate extremes heat, drought, floods and storms for more than 66 percent of the time, i.

See Annex 2 for the list of countries with high exposure to climate extremes and methodology. The impact of climate variability and extremes on agriculture and food security: Rome, FAO, for classification of countries with high and low exposure to climate extremes; FAO for data on prevalence of undernourishment. A high dependence on agriculture, as measured by the number of people employed in the sector, leaves the PoU 9.

For low-income countries, the increase is equal to The finding is different for middle-income countries where the rise in PoU is less pronounced and occurs later from — A full-text aggregation of more than scientific journals publishing current research in Biodiversity Conservation, Biology, Ecology, Environmental Science, Entomology, Ornithology, Plant Science, and Zoology.

Available from BioOne [27]. American Chemical Society [31]. Chemisches Zentralblatt Structural Database. Available from the InfoChem [32]. Pennsylvania State University [33].

Chinese Social Science Citation Index. Nursing , Allied Health. Database of 15 million articles in the Japanese language from journals. National Institute of Informatics [37]. Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database.

University of Calgary [38]. Mathematics , Computer science , Physics. University of Southampton [39]. Pennsylvania State University [40]. Computer science , Statistics , Mathematics , becoming Multidisciplinary. Pennsylvania State University [41]. University of Southampton [42]. The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies. Current Index to Statistics. Limited free search [45]. Part of Web of Science. Contains 7 discipline-specific subsets.

Extensive research database including publications, grants, patents, and clinical trials. Dimensions is a collaborative project of six Digital Science portfolio companies: Directory of Open Access Journals. EconBiz supports research in and teaching of economics with a central entry point for all kinds of subject-specific information and direct access to full texts.

The American Economic Association's electronic database, the world's foremost source of references to economic literature.

Produced by the American Economic Association. Educational Resource Information Center. Education literature and resources.

Provides access to over 1. Produced by the United States Department of Education. A database of biomedical and life sciences literature with access to full-text research articles and citations. A partner in PMC International. Food science , Food technology , Nutrition. Descriptions of women's history collections from sources in the UK, as well as women's history websites.

London Metropolitan University [64]. Specialist bibliographic, abstracting and indexing database dedicated to public health research and practice. Free online search; offline use by subscription. Golm Metabolome Database [66]. An alternative interface to the PubMed medical literature database.

Computer Science , Engineering , Electronics. Scientific journal database — the IC Journal Master List — contains currently over 2, journals from all over the world, including journals from Poland.

The journals registered in this database underwent rigorous, multidimensional parameterization, proving high quality. Index Copernicus International [73]. Department of Energy Scientific and Technical Information. DOE Scientific and Technical Information provides free public access to over , full-text documents and bibliographic citations of Department of Energy DOE research report literature.

Legacy documents are added as they become available in electronic format. Free searching; Subscription full-text. Indian Citation Index ICI is a home grown abstracts and citation database, with multidisciplinary objective knowledge contents from about top Indian scholarly journals. It provides powerful search engine to fulfill search and evaluation purposes for researchers, policy makers, decision makers etc.

The site provides tools to build graphic reports. Physics , Engineering , Computer Science. The leading bibliographic database providing abstracts and indexing to the world's scientific and technical papers in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, computing, information technology, manufacturing, production, and mechanical engineering.

Physics , High Energy. International Directory of Philosophy. Contains information on university philosophy departments and programs, philosophical societies, research centers, journals, and philosophy publishers in the U.

Free search; full access by subscription. Philosophy Documentation Center [82]. Open access journals in different language. Links to journal's home page and publishers. Also, early journals prior to in US, elsewhere free, no registry necessary. Jurn is a free-to-use online search tool for finding and downloading free full-text scholarly works. In Jurn expanded beyond open access journals in the arts and humanities, to also index open journals in ecology, science, biomedical, business and economics.

Jurn is actively curated and maintained. Over , teacher-reviewed classroom resources including lesson plans, worksheets, educational videos, and education articles.

Estimation of regional and global trends is based on a multilevel modelling method see de Onis et al. For the most recent trend analysis, a total of data points from countries over the period to were included in the model.

This set of trend data points was jointly reviewed by UNICEF, WHO and the World Bank Group in January to ensure that it is nationally representative of under-five children, processed using standard algorithms and comparable vertically and horizontally. Global and regional trend modelling and graphing were carried out using SAS the country-level data set and analysis code are available on request.

Each circle represents a prevalence estimate from a country for one survey. The size of the circle is proportional to the under-five population in that country for the average of all survey years. The solid line indicates the regional trend as modelled on all the available data points in the region.

Explanation as to why trends are shown for stunting and overweight but only most current estimate for wasting and severe wasting: Prevalence estimates for stunting and overweight are relatively stable over the course of a calendar year.

It is therefore possible to track global and regional changes in these two conditions over time. Wasting and severe wasting are acute conditions that can change frequently and rapidly over the course of a calendar year.

This makes it difficult to generate reliable trends over time with the input data available, and as such, this report provides only the most recent global and regional estimates for the JME edition. These data are collected infrequently every 3 to 5 years in most countries and measure malnutrition at one point in time e. Footnotes on population coverage As started in the edition, a separate exercise was conducted to assess population coverage.

This was important in order to alert the reader, via footnotes, to instances where the data should be interpreted with caution due to low population coverage defined as less than 50 per cent. A conservative method was applied looking at available data within mutually exclusive five-year periods around the projected years. Population coverage was calculated as:. Prevalence thresholds for wasting, overweight and stunting in children under 5 years.

Manuscript submitted for publication. Malnutrition rates remain alarming: Percentage of children under 5 who are stunted, In three regions, stunting affects one in every three children Percentage of children under 5 who are stunted, Percentage of children under 5 who are stunted, by region, to Globally, stunting declined from one in three to just under one in four between and Percentage of children under 5 who are stunted, by region, to Between and , the number of stunted children under 5 worldwide declined from million to million.

At the same time, numbers have increased at an alarming rate in West and Central Africa - from Number millions of children under 5 who are stunted, by region, and Percentage of children under 5 in millions who are overweight, by region, to The prevalence of overweight under-fives has increased significantly between and in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Percentage of children under 5 in millions who are overweight, by region, to Number of children under 5 in millions who are overweight, by region, to The number of overweight under-fives has increased significantly between and in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Number of children under 5 in millions who are overweight, by region, to The prevalence of wasting in South Asia is so severe, at Percentage of children under 5 who are wasted, by region, Map Disclaimer These maps are stylized and not to scale and do not reflect a position by UNICEF on the legal status of any country or territory or the delimitation of any frontiers.

The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. The final boundary between the Sudan and South Sudan has not yet been determined. The final status of Abyei area has not yet been determined.

Percentage of children under 5 who are stunted, by wealth quintile and by region,

Food Security & Nutrition around the World