Digestive System

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Digestive system of gastropods
If a cell feels it is not getting enough energy to survive, more mitochondria can be created. Its job is to move the bolus into the stomach. IBD inflammatory bowel disease. Nerves from the cheeks and tongue are stimulated and send messages to the brain. The matrix is filled with water and proteins enzymes. KRAS Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog. Any ulcer that heals leaves a scar.

Graphical abstract

Mitochondria - Turning on the Powerhouse

There are three enzymes in pancreatic juice that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The gall bladder, located next to the liver, stores bile produced by the liver. While bile does not contain enzymes, it contains bile salts that help to dissolve fats. The gall bladder empties bile into the duodenum when chyme enters that portion of the intestine. The jejunum is about 8. The digested carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and most of the vitamins, minerals, and iron are absorbed in this section.

The inner lining of the small intestine is composed of up to five million tiny, fingerlike projections called villi.

The villi increase the rate of absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream by greatly increasing the surface area of the small intestine. The ileum, the last section of the small intestine, is the longest, measuring 11 feet 3.

Certain vitamins and other nutrients are absorbed here. The large intestine is wider and heavier than the small intestine. However, it is much shorter—only about 5 feet 1. It rises up on the right side of the body the ascending colon , crosses over to the other side underneath the stomach the transverse colon , descends on the left side, the descending colon , then forms an s-shape the sigmoid colon before reaching the rectum and anus.

The muscular rectum, about 6 inches 16 centimeters long, expels feces stool through the anus, which has a large muscular sphincter that controls the passage of waste matter.

The large intestine removes water from the waste products of digestion and returns some of it to the bloodstream. Fecal matter contains undigested food, bacteria, and cells from the walls of the digestive tract. Millions of bacteria in the large intestine help to produce certain B vitamins and vitamin K.

These vitamins are absorbed into the bloodstream along with the water. Among the several disorders that affect the digestive system are esophagitis heartburn and ulcers. Esophagitis is an inflammation of the esophagus caused by gastric acids flowing back into the esophagus. Mild cases of this condition are usually treated with commercial antacids. Stomach ulcers are sores that form in the lining of the stomach.

They may vary in size from a small sore to a deep cavity. Ulcers that form in the lining of the stomach and the duodenum are called peptic ulcers because they need stomach acid and the enzyme pepsin to form. Duodenal ulcers are the most common type. They tend to be smaller than stomach ulcers and heal more quickly.

Any ulcer that heals leaves a scar. Until the early s, the medical community generally believed that ulcers were caused by several factors, including stress and a poor diet. However, medical researchers soon came to believe that a certain bacterium that can live undetected in the mucous lining of the stomach was responsible.

This bacterium irritated and weakened the lining, making it more susceptible to damage by stomach acids. The human digestive process. Reproduced by permission of The Gale Group.

It is believed that about 80 percent of stomach ulcers may be caused by the bacterial infection. With this discovery, ulcer patients today are being treated with antibiotics and antacids rather than special diets or expensive medicines. The interior of the beak is rigid "foam" composed of bony fibers and drum-like membranes sandwiched between outer layers of keratin. Woodpecker shock-absorbing system -- Woodpeckers are known to drum hard woody surfaces of trees at a rate of 18 to 22 times per second with a deceleration of g humans can lose consciousness at g-forces as low as 4 to 6 g.

Woodpeckers have four structures that help absorb mechanical shock and prevent brain damage: A woodpecker's hyoid extends posteriorly from the floor of the oral cavity, goes behind the neck, divides into two bands, goes around the back of the skull, and inserts at the front of the skull.

This allows woodpeckers to extend their tongues well beyond the tip of the beak when foraging, but this arrangement also helps distribute mechanical vibrations when drumming. The spongy bone is thought to evenly distribute mechanical vibrations before they propogate to the brain. Yoon and Park Yoon and Park built a shock-absorbing device with mechanical 'woodpecker' analogues that consisted of glass beads embedded in a steel-encased aluminum cylinder.

They shot it with an airgun and found that the new device protected its contents electronic equipment at forces up to 60, g. To evenly distribute load and cut down on vibration, like the hyoid, they added a rubber layer. Woodpecker's head inspires shock absorbers.

The unequal length of the upper and lower parts of woodpecker beaks the lower being longer directs the force of impact downwards, away from the brain, when it hits the tree red coloration indicates the greatest force or stess; blue indicates the least force or stress.

Time after impact proceeds from upper left 0. The hyoid of woodpeckers loops over top of the skull to completely surround their skulls. The hyoid helps direct the stress of impact below and around the skull and brain and also acts like a 'safety belt', helping to keep the brain in place. It is the movement of the brain inside the skull during impact, more than the blow itself, that causes concussions.

If the brain is held in place, injury risks are greatly reduced. As in the above figure, time after impact proceeds from upper left to lower right Figures from Wang et al.

Built to peck - Segment 2. Built to peck - Segment 4. Built to peck - Segment 5. Built to peck - Segment 6. Built to peck - Segment 7. The capillary ratchet mechanism. Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: They peck at the surface, picking up droplets of water with prey inside. Because their beaks point downward when feeding, gravity must be overcome to get those droplets from the tip of the bird's long beak to its mouth.

This feeding strategy depends on surface tension. As the beak opens and closes, each movement propels the water droplet one step closer to the bird's mouth. Specifically, when the beak closes, the drop's leading edge moves toward the mouth, while the trailing edge stays put.

In this stepwise ratcheting fashion, the drop travels along the beak at a speed of about 1 meter per second. The efficiency of the process, called the "capillary ratchet," depends on beak shape, and long, narrow beaks, like those of phalaropes, are best suited to this mode of feeding.

Serin Serinus serinus with a seed positioned in its bill. Note how the tongue is used to hold the seed in position From: Their data provide the first detailed description of this highly specialized foraging technique. They recorded no or a very low deceleration when Gannets entered the water, which underlines the remarkable streamlining of this large bird.

Birds use their momentum to travel underwater at an average descent rate of 2. After chasing prey, birds developed an upward momentum before gliding passively back to the surface, making use of their buoyancy to complete the dive at the lowest possible energy cost. Check the Gannet videos at ARKive. Aerial insectivores -- Swifts depend on flying efficiently and maintaining high speed. Hawking insectivores, like flycatchers , depend on perches located near prey, but they must be able to accelerate rapidly and be very maneuverable.

Swallows combine these two strategies; they are fast, maneuverable and able to accelerate when necessary Warrick Although not part of the digestive system in an anatomical sense, some birds, like hawks and owls , use their feet and talons to capture prey.

Typically, raptor prey are killed by the talons of the contracting foot being driven into their bodies; if required, the hooked bill is used to kill prey being held by the talons. The raptor digital tendon locking mechanism -- Digital tendons form a mechanical-locking mechanism in many birds that must maintain a degree of grip force, including perching, hanging, tree-climbing, and raptorial species.

In raptors, powerful hindlimb muscles produce a strong grasp, and a tendon locking mechanism TLM helps sustain grip force. The components of the digital TLM include a 'textured' pad on the ventral surface of each flexor tendon that contains thousands of minute, rigid, well-defined projections called tubercles see figure below. The neighboring portion of the surrounding tendon sheath contains a series of transversely running plicae folds that often have a proximal slant i.

When the flexor tendons are pulled taut, and the digits flexed, the tubercle pad moves proximally over the stationary plicae on the sheath. When resistance to digital flexion is met, the locking elements intermesh and engage and the friction produced prevents slippage of the tendons.

This permits digital flexion to be maintained with little or no muscular involvement E inoder and Richardson Action of the avian digital TLM: This shows the movement of the talon a , flexor e and extensor d tendons, ungual phalanx b , and the movement of the ventrally located tubercle pad f relative to the stationary plicated sheath g and phalangeal bone c From: Einoder and Richardson Each raptor has a unique force production, along with a different time of activity, that would allow for a degree of prey specialization.

Great Horned Owl foot. B Great Horned Owl. The relation between rate of success and direction of movement for a food item that was pulled forward a , backward b and sideways c. Direction of prey progression — dotted arrow 1 , direction of owl flight — dashed arrow 2 , and direction to which the owl had to move its head or trunk — solid arrow 3. Owl picture from Knudsen Movement and direction of prey affect raptor success rate -- Shifferman and Eilam tested a novel idea, that rather than maximizing their distance from a predator during close-distance encounters, prey species are better off moving directly or diagonally toward the predator in order to increase the relative speed and confine the attack to a single available clashing point.

They used two tamed Barn Owls Tyto alba to measure the rate of attack success in relation to the direction of prey movement. A dead mouse or chick was used to simulate the prey, pulled to various directions by means of a transparent string during the owl's attack.

This failure to catch prey that move sideways may reflect constraints in postural head movements in aerial raptors that cannot move the eyes but rather move the entire head in tracking prey. So far there is no evidence that defensive behavior in terrestrial prey species takes advantage of the above escape directions to lower rates of predator success. However, birds seem to adjust their defensive tactics in the vertical domain by taking-off at a steep angle, thus moving diagonally toward the direction of an approaching aerial predator.

These preliminary findings warrant further studies in Barn Owls and other predators, in both field and laboratory settings, to uncover fine predator head movements during hunting, the corresponding defensive behavior of the prey, and the adaptive significance of these behaviors. Barred Owl primary - leading edge below and trailing edge above. The silent flight of owls -- Noise is generated by vortices produced when air flows over a bird's wing and larger vortices produce more noise.

Wings with small saw-toothed projections vortex generators , like those on the leading edge of owl wings, generate many small vortices instead of large vortices and produces less aerodynamic noise. In addition, the fringe feathers at the trailing edge of the wing with fewer hooklets at the ends of the barbs help to break up the sound waves that are generated as air flows over the top of their wings and forms downstream wakes, and the soft down feathers located elsewhere on the wings and legs of owls absorb the remaining sound frequencies above 2, hertz and make owls completely silent to their prey.

As a bonus, with high angles of attack and at slow speeds, vortex generators stick out of the stagnant air near the surface of the wing, and into the freely moving air outside the boundary layer.

This surface layer is typically quite thin, but dramatically reduces speed of the airflow towards the rear of the wing. The vortex generators mix the free stream with the stagnant air to get it moving again, providing considerably more airflow at the rear of the wing and helping to prevent stalling. This process is referred to as 're-energizing the boundary layer. Unpredictable predators -- The use of space by predators in relation to their prey is a poorly understood aspect of predator-prey interactions.

Classic theory suggests that predators should focus their efforts on areas of abundant prey, that is, prey hotspots, whereas game-theoretical models of predator and prey movement suggest that the distribution of predators should match that of their prey's resources.

If, however, prey are spatially anchored to one location and these prey have particularly strong antipredator responses that make them difficult to capture with frequent attacks, then predators may be forced to adopt alternative movement strategies to hunt behaviorally responsive prey. Roth and Lima examined the movement patterns of bird-eating Sharp-shinned Hawks Accipiter striatus in an attempt to shed light on hotspot use by predators.

Their results suggest that these hawks do not focus on prey hotspots such as bird feeders but instead maintain much spatial and temporal unpredictability in their movements. Hawks seldom revisited the same area, and the few frequently used areas were revisited in a manner consistent with unpredictable returns, giving prey little additional information about risk.

But why wouldn't Sharp-shinned Hawks focus their hunting on the areas with the most potential prey bird feeders? One possibility is that behaviorally responsive prey diminish the "hotspot" quality of feeders. Although feeder hotspots are sources of abundant prey, the individuals at such feeders generally benefit from group vigilance as a result of these higher densities. As a result, the vulnerability of the prey may actually be lower at feeders than at other locations.

In addition, unpredictable movement may reflect a sort of "prey management" by predators, whereby predators spread their hunting activity over multiple areas in an effort to avoid inflating the antipredator behavior of their prey.

This hunting strategy may be effective when prey are anchored to high-resource areas such as feeders and use antipredator behaviors, such as high vigilance, that reduce a predator's attack success if it attacks frequently and predictably. Seabirds are choking on ocean plastic video. The tongues of cormorants and other fish-eating species are small because these species swallow prey whole and tongues are not needed to manipulate or position food in the oral cavity.

Dorsal view of the surface of the lower bill of a Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. Arrow shows the tongue with sharpened tip. Scale bar, 12 mm. Lateral view of the cormorant tongue. The tongue and the small anterior and posterior areas of the mucosa of the bill are covered by white keratinized epithelium.

Black arrow shows short base of the tongue. White arrow shows the median crest on the dorsal surface of the tongue. A, anterior; B, posterior. Scale bar, 3 mm Source: Detailed view of the horny tip left of the Guadeloupe Woodpecker tongue in vivo position Villard and Cuisin Dorsal view of the tongue of the Spotted Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes. Arrows show two elongated processes of the apex. A, apex, B, body, R, root, LP, laryngeal prominence.

Scale bar, 3 mm. Lateral view of the tongue of the nutcracker. Arrow shows elongated processes, pointed diagonally, B, body, R, root. Hummingbird tongues are fluid traps, not capillary tubes -- Hummingbird tongues pick up a liquid, calorie-dense food that cannot be grasped, a physical challenge that has long inspired the study of nectar-transport mechanics.

Existing biophysical models predict optimal hummingbird foraging on the basis of equations that assume that fluid rises through the tongue in the same way as through capillary tubes.

Rico-Guevara and Rubega found that hummingbird tongues do not function like a pair of tiny, static tubes drawing up floral nectar via capillary action. Instead, the tongue tip is a dynamic liquid-trapping device that dynamically traps nectar by rapidly changing their shape during feeding.

In addition, the tongue—fluid interactions are identical in both living and dead birds, demonstrating that this mechanism is a function of the tongue structure itself, and therefore highly efficient because no energy expenditure by the bird is required to drive the opening and closing of the trap.

These results rule out previous conclusions from capillarity-based models of nectar feeding and highlight the necessity of developing a new biophysical model for nectar intake in hummingbirds. Hummingbird tongue tips twist to trap nectar. How the hummingbird tongue really works with videos. Close encounters with possible prey. You want to live 10—20 years. You are peering under leaves, poking into rolled ones, searching around stems, exploring bark crevices and other insect hiding places.

Abruptly an eye appears, 1—5 cm from your bill. The eye or a portion of it is half seen, obstructed, shadowed, partly out of focus, more or less round, multicolored, and perhaps moving. Now, a safe few meters away, are you going to go back to see whether that was food? Associated body patterns often suggest other head and facial features, which in turn enhance the eye-like nature of the spots.

None of these patterns exactly matches the eyes or face of any particular species of predator; but, even when quickly and partially glimpsed, all give the illusion of an eye or face. These false eyes are mimicking the eyes and faces of such predators of insect-eating birds as snakes, lizards, other birds, and small mammals, as perceived at close range by the insectivorous birds in their natural world.

Note the distended throat of this American Kestrel. Pigeons generally lay two eggs one day apart, which hatch 18 days after they are laid. A similar substance is produced by flamingos and male Emperor Penguins. The normal function of the crop is food storage. Pigeon 'milk' also contains IgA antibodies and antioxidants carotenoids. The avian stomach is divided into 2 parts:. Photomicrograph 50X of a cross section through the proventriculus showing folds of mucous membrane P ; deep proventricular glands GP ; capsule connective tissue around the glands arrow head ; muscle layer m ; serosa connective tissue with blood vessels S , and the lumen L From: Photomicrograph X of longitudinal section of the gizzard showing folds of mucous membrane lined by simple prismatic epithelium P ; simple tubular glands Gs in the lamina propria constituted by connective tissue Lp ; secretion of glands S that are continuous with the cuticle or koilin ; C , part of muscle layer m , interpersed with bundles of connective tissue Tc From: Photomicrograph X of the koilin of an Eclectus Parrot Eclectus roratus.

Note the regular, columnated structure of the koilin layer K and its association with the glandular epithelium E of the ventriculus From: De Voe et al. A, koilin, B, crypts, C, glands that secrete koilin, D, epithelial surface, E, desquamated epithelial cells, 2 Mucosa of the gizzard.

A, koilin, B, secretion in gland lumens and crypts, and 3 Koilin layer. A, secretion column, B, koilin-layer surface, C, horizontal stripe indicating a 'pause' in secretion of the koilin, D, cellular debris. Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ. There are many specialised cells of the GI tract.

These include the various cells of the gastric glands, taste cells , pancreatic duct cells , enterocytes and microfold cells.

Some parts of the digestive system are also part of the excretory system , including the large intestine. The mouth is the first part of the upper gastrointestinal tract and is equipped with several structures that begin the first processes of digestion. The mouth consists of two regions; the vestibule and the oral cavity proper. The vestibule is the area between the teeth, lips and cheeks, [4] and the rest is the oral cavity proper.

Most of the oral cavity is lined with oral mucosa , a mucous membrane that produces a lubricating mucus , of which only a small amount is needed. Mucous membranes vary in structure in the different regions of the body but they all produce a lubricating mucus, which is either secreted by surface cells or more usually by underlying glands. The mucous membrane in the mouth continues as the thin mucosa which lines the bases of the teeth.

The main component of mucus is a glycoprotein called mucin and the type secreted varies according to the region involved.

Mucin is viscous, clear, and clinging. Underlying the mucous membrane in the mouth is a thin layer of smooth muscle tissue and the loose connection to the membrane gives it its great elasticity. The roof of the mouth is termed the palate and it separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. The palate is hard at the front of the mouth since the overlying mucosa is covering a plate of bone ; it is softer and more pliable at the back being made of muscle and connective tissue, and it can move to swallow food and liquids.

The soft palate ends at the uvula. At either side of the soft palate are the palatoglossus muscles which also reach into regions of the tongue. These muscles raise the back of the tongue and also close both sides of the fauces to enable food to be swallowed. There are three pairs of main salivary glands and between and 1, minor salivary glands, all of which mainly serve the digestive process, and also play an important role in the maintenance of dental health and general mouth lubrication, without which speech would be impossible.

All of these glands terminate in the mouth. The largest of these are the parotid glands —their secretion is mainly serous. The next pair are underneath the jaw, the submandibular glands , these produce both serous fluid and mucus. The serous fluid is produced by serous glands in these salivary glands which also produce lingual lipase. The third pair are the sublingual glands located underneath the tongue and their secretion is mainly mucous with a small percentage of saliva.

Within the oral mucosa , and also on the tongue, palates, and floor of the mouth, are the minor salivary glands; their secretions are mainly mucous and they are innervated by the facial nerve CN7. There are other glands on the surface of the tongue that encircle taste buds on the back part of the tongue and these also produce lingual lipase. Lipase is a digestive enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of lipids fats. These glands are termed Von Ebner's glands which have also been shown to have another function in the secretion of histatins which offer an early defense outside of the immune system against microbes in food, when it makes contact with these glands on the tongue tissue.

Saliva moistens and softens food, and along with the chewing action of the teeth, transforms the food into a smooth bolus. The bolus is further helped by the lubrication provided by the saliva in its passage from the mouth into the esophagus.

Also of importance is the presence in saliva of the digestive enzymes amylase and lipase. Amylase starts to work on the starch in carbohydrates , breaking it down into the simple sugars of maltose and dextrose that can be further broken down in the small intestine. Lipase starts to work on breaking down fats. Lipase is further produced in the pancreas where it is released to continue this digestion of fats.

The presence of salivary lipase is of prime importance in young babies whose pancreatic lipase has yet to be developed.

As well as its role in supplying digestive enzymes , saliva has a cleansing action for the teeth and mouth. Saliva also contains a glycoprotein called haptocorrin which is a binding protein to vitamin B When it reaches the duodenum, pancreatic enzymes break down the glycoprotein and free the vitamin which then binds with intrinsic factor.

Food enters the mouth where the first stage in the digestive process takes place, with the action of the tongue and the secretion of saliva. The tongue is a fleshy and muscular sensory organ , and the very first sensory information is received via the taste buds in the papillae on its surface.

If the taste is agreeable, the tongue will go into action, manipulating the food in the mouth which stimulates the secretion of saliva from the salivary glands. The liquid quality of the saliva will help in the softening of the food and its enzyme content will start to break down the food whilst it is still in the mouth.

The first part of the food to be broken down is the starch of carbohydrates by the enzyme amylase in the saliva. The tongue is attached to the floor of the mouth by a ligamentous band called the frenum [5] and this gives it great mobility for the manipulation of food and speech ; the range of manipulation is optimally controlled by the action of several muscles and limited in its external range by the stretch of the frenum.

The tongue's two sets of muscles, are four intrinsic muscles that originate in the tongue and are involved with its shaping, and four extrinsic muscles originating in bone that are involved with its movement. Taste is a form of chemoreception that takes place in the specialised taste receptors , contained in structures called taste buds in the mouth.

Taste buds are mainly on the upper surface dorsum of the tongue. The function of taste perception is vital to help prevent harmful or rotten foods from being consumed.

There are also taste buds on the epiglottis and upper part of the esophagus. The taste buds are innervated by a branch of the facial nerve the chorda tympani , and the glossopharyngeal nerve. Taste messages are sent via these cranial nerves to the brain. The brain can distinguish between the chemical qualities of the food. The five basic tastes are referred to as those of saltiness , sourness , bitterness , sweetness , and umami.

The detection of saltiness and sourness enables the control of salt and acid balance. The detection of bitterness warns of poisons—many of a plant's defences are of poisonous compounds that are bitter. Sweetness guides to those foods that will supply energy; the initial breakdown of the energy-giving carbohydrates by salivary amylase creates the taste of sweetness since simple sugars are the first result. The taste of umami is thought to signal protein-rich food. Sour tastes are acidic which is often found in bad food.

The brain has to decide very quickly whether the food should be eaten or not. It was the findings in , describing the first olfactory receptors that helped to prompt the research into taste. The olfactory receptors are located on cell surfaces in the nose which bind to chemicals enabling the detection of smells.

It is assumed that signals from taste receptors work together with those from the nose, to form an idea of complex food flavours. Teeth are complex structures made of materials specific to them. They are made of a bone-like material called dentin , which is covered by the hardest tissue in the body— enamel.

This results in a much larger surface area for the action of digestive enzymes. The teeth are named after their particular roles in the process of mastication— incisors are used for cutting or biting off pieces of food; canines , are used for tearing, premolars and molars are used for chewing and grinding. Mastication of the food with the help of saliva and mucus results in the formation of a soft bolus which can then be swallowed to make its way down the upper gastrointestinal tract to the stomach.

The epiglottis is a flap of elastic cartilage attached to the entrance of the larynx. It is covered with a mucous membrane and there are taste buds on its lingual surface which faces into the mouth. The epiglottis functions to guard the entrance of the glottis , the opening between the vocal folds. It is normally pointed upward during breathing with its underside functioning as part of the pharynx, but during swallowing, the epiglottis folds down to a more horizontal position, with its upper side functioning as part of the pharynx.

In this manner it prevents food from going into the trachea and instead directs it to the esophagus, which is behind. During swallowing, the backward motion of the tongue forces the epiglottis over the glottis' opening to prevent any food that is being swallowed from entering the larynx which leads to the lungs; the larynx is also pulled upwards to assist this process. Stimulation of the larynx by ingested matter produces a strong cough reflex in order to protect the lungs.

The pharynx is a part of the conducting zone of the respiratory system and also a part of the digestive system. It is the part of the throat immediately behind the nasal cavity at the back of the mouth and above the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx is made up of three parts.

The lower two parts—the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx are involved in the digestive system. The laryngopharynx connects to the esophagus and it serves as a passageway for both air and food.

Air enters the larynx anteriorly but anything swallowed has priority and the passage of air is temporarily blocked. The pharynx is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve.

The pharynx joins the esophagus at the oesophageal inlet which is located behind the cricoid cartilage. The esophagus , commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophagus is continuous with the laryngopharynx. It passes through the posterior mediastinum in the thorax and enters the stomach through a hole in the thoracic diaphragm —the esophageal hiatus , at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra T It is divided into cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts.

The pharynx joins the esophagus at the esophageal inlet which is behind the cricoid cartilage. At rest the esophagus is closed at both ends, by the upper and lower esophageal sphincters. The opening of the upper sphincter is triggered by the swallowing reflex so that food is allowed through.

The sphincter also serves to prevent back flow from the esophagus into the pharynx. The esophagus has a mucous membrane and the epithelium which has a protective function is continuously replaced due to the volume of food that passes inside the esophagus.

During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus. The epiglottis folds down to a more horizontal position to direct the food into the esophagus, and away from the trachea. Once in the esophagus, the bolus travels down to the stomach via rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles known as peristalsis.

The lower esophageal sphincter is a muscular sphincter surrounding the lower part of the esophagus. The junction between the esophagus and the stomach the gastroesophageal junction is controlled by the lower esophageal sphincter, which remains constricted at all times other than during swallowing and vomiting to prevent the contents of the stomach from entering the esophagus.

As the esophagus does not have the same protection from acid as the stomach, any failure of this sphincter can lead to heartburn. The esophagus has a mucous membrane of epithelium which has a protective function as well as providing a smooth surface for the passage of food.

Due to the high volume of food that is passed over time, this membrane is continuously renewed. The diaphragm is an important part of the body's digestive system. The muscular diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity where most of the digestive organs are located.

The suspensory muscle attaches the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm. This muscle is thought to be of help in the digestive system in that its attachment offers a wider angle to the duodenojejunal flexure for the easier passage of digesting material. The diaphragm also attaches to, and anchors the liver at its bare area. The esophagus enters the abdomen through a hole in the diaphragm at the level of T The stomach is a major organ of the gastrointestinal tract and digestive system.

It is a consistently J-shaped organ joined to the esophagus at its upper end and to the duodenum at its lower end. Gastric acid informally gastric juice , produced in the stomach plays a vital role in the digestive process, and mainly contains hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride.

A peptide hormone , gastrin , produced by G cells in the gastric glands , stimulates the production of gastric juice which activates the digestive enzymes. Pepsinogen is a precursor enzyme zymogen produced by the gastric chief cells , and gastric acid activates this to the enzyme pepsin which begins the digestion of proteins.

As these two chemicals would damage the stomach wall, mucus is secreted by innumerable gastric glands in the stomach, to provide a slimy protective layer against the damaging effects of the chemicals on the inner layers of the stomach.

At the same time that protein is being digested, mechanical churning occurs through the action of peristalsis , waves of muscular contractions that move along the stomach wall. This allows the mass of food to further mix with the digestive enzymes. Gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells in the fundic glands in the gastric mucosa of the stomach, is an acidic lipase, in contrast with the alkaline pancreatic lipase. This breaks down fats to some degree though is not as efficient as the pancreatic lipase.

The pylorus , the lowest section of the stomach which attaches to the duodenum via the pyloric canal , contains countless glands which secrete digestive enzymes including gastrin. After an hour or two, a thick semi-liquid called chyme is produced. When the pyloric sphincter , or valve opens, chyme enters the duodenum where it mixes further with digestive enzymes from the pancreas, and then passes through the small intestine, where digestion continues.

When the chyme is fully digested, it is absorbed into the blood. Water and minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon of the large intestine, where the environment is slightly acidic.

Some vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K produced by bacteria in the gut flora of the colon are also absorbed. The parietal cells in the fundus of the stomach, produce a glycoprotein called intrinsic factor which is essential for the absorption of vitamin B Vitamin B12 cobalamin , is carried to, and through the stomach, bound to a glycoprotein secreted by the salivary glands - transcobalamin I also called haptocorrin , which protects the acid-sensitive vitamin from the acidic stomach contents.

Once in the more neutral duodenum, pancreatic enzymes break down the protective glycoprotein. The freed vitamin B12 then binds to intrinsic factor which is then absorbed by the enterocytes in the ileum. The stomach is a distensible organ and can normally expand to hold about one litre of food.

The stomach of a newborn baby will only be able to expand to retain about 30 ml. The spleen breaks down both red and white blood cells that are spent. This is why it is sometimes known as the 'graveyard of red blood cells'. A product of this digestion is the pigment bilirubin , which is sent to the liver and secreted in the bile. Another product is iron , which is used in the formation of new blood cells in the bone marrow. The liver is the second largest organ after the skin and is an accessory digestive gland which plays a role in the body's metabolism.

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