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Many humans enjoy venturing into the sea: This movement is slow and is driven by differences in density of the water caused by variations in salinity and temperature. How does gravity affect falling objects? Coordinate all your classes and the homework required. Birds Information on bird identification, bird songs, pictures, clipart and more. Meanwhile, the determination of longitude continued to involve approximations and guesswork: Truman 's unilateral claim of jurisdiction over the oil reserves of America's continental shelf in  directly led to the end of the regime.
Just enter the name of the image you want, like "paramecium" and search for images. Microscopic Image Search Engines. General Biology Image Search Engines. Animal - Nature - Plant Image Links. Microsopic Images From University of Oregon. Plant Parts and Functions Yahoo! Nerium Oleander leaf x-sec. Juglans Walnut cleared leaf Ammophila cleared leaf Tradescantia stomata Simple leaf, pinnate venation Simple leaf, palmate-reticulate venation Compound leaf, bipinnate Compound leaf, palmate Ligustrum Pine leaf Zea Netted venation Hydrophyte Xerophyte Roots Raphanus Radish root tip whole mount Zea Corn root tip longitudinal sec.
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The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher by Lewis Thomas. Listen to this book now by clicking on this link to Yahoo! The Book - A highly recommended freshwater protozoa guide!
A Color Guide by David J. Book Description This color book makes the identification of individual protozoa easily accessible and provides information on protozoan communities found in different environments by means of a wealth of color photomicrographs supported by original and detailed line drawings and concise text.
Contains excellent information for ecologists as well. Thanks to David Patterson for submitting information in this section. The WWW links on these pages will take you directly to the various web site pages. Your browser URL address line will tell you the origin of the site.
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Agricultural Research Service Image Gallery inc. Acadia National Park in Maine. In cuisine, when discussing fruit as food, the term usually refers to just those plant fruits that are sweet and fleshy, examples of which would include plum, apple and orange.
However, a great many common vegetables, as well as nuts and grains, are the fruit of the plants they come from. Fungus -A class of cellular plants, of which Mushrooms, Toadstools, and Moulds, are familiar examples. HTML Aerobic, multicellular, nonphotosynthetic, heterotrophic microorganisms. The fungi include mushrooms, yeast, molds, and smuts.
Most fungi are saprophytes, obtaining their nourishment from dead organic matter. Along with bacteria, fungi are the principal organisms responsible for the decomposition of carbon in the biosphere.
Fungi have two ecological advantages over bacteria: Some grow in soil, others attach themselves to decaying trees and other plants whence they obtain nutrients. Some are pathogens, others stabilize sewage and digest composted waste.
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This course satisfies a high school science graduation requirement. Instruction is designed to allow for the application of scientific and technological aspects of animal science through field and laboratory experiences. To prepare for careers in the field of animal science, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire knowledge and skills related to animal systems, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry standards.
Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.
Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods scientific methods and ethical and social decisions that involve science the application of scientific information.
All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.
Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science are created and new technologies emerge;.
Students will evaluate the environmental benefits provided by sustainable resources and green technologies. Instruction is designed to allow for the application of science and technology to measure environmental impacts resulting from production agriculture through field and laboratory experiences. To prepare for careers in environmental service systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire advanced technical knowledge and skills related to environmental service systems and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.
To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills and technologies in a variety of settings.
In addition, renewable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly practices will be explored. To prepare for careers in the field of energy and natural resource systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to energy and natural resources and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.
Students will also understand components, systems, equipment, and production and safety regulations associated with oil and gas wells. To prepare for careers in oil and gas production, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to oil and gas production and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. Oil and Gas Production I. To prepare for careers in value-added and food processing systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to value-added and food processing and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.
Department of Agriculture's inspection and grading procedures;. Food Processing One Credit , Adopted Food Technology and Safety. To prepare for careers in food products and processing systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to natural resources and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.
To prepare for careers in natural resource systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to natural resources, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. Special emphasis is given to management as it relates to ecological requirements and how these practices impact the environment. To prepare for careers in environmental and natural resource systems, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to environmental and natural resources, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.
Floral Design One Credit , Adopted This course satisfies the fine arts graduation requirement. The animals raised included finfish , aquatic reptiles , crustaceans, molluscs, sea cucumbers , sea urchins , sea squirts, and jellyfish. Various methods are employed. Mesh enclosures for finfish can be suspended in the open seas, cages can be used in more sheltered waters, or ponds can be refreshed with water at each high tide. Shrimps can be reared in shallow ponds connected to the open sea.
Oysters can be reared on trays or in mesh tubes. Sea cucumbers can be ranched on the seabed. In the s, disease wiped out China's farmed Farrer's scallop and white shrimp and required their replacement by other species.
Admiralty law is the particular body of national laws applied to maritime questions and offenses, as the uncertainty of sea voyages has caused the sea to be viewed as a unique jurisdiction since antiquity. Rhodian , Roman , Byzantine , Trani , and Amalfian laws were important influences on the French , Genovese , and Hanseatic codes which established the first English courts of admiralty. Unlike the usual English common law system, the courts of admiralty hewed closer to Continental practice , leaving it open for abuse that contributed to the American Revolution.
The Law of the Sea is the particular body international law applied to maritime questions and offenses. Empires such as Rome and China long claimed universal jurisdiction ; during the Middle Ages , Italian maritime republics such as Venice and Genoa recognized the existence of rival states but claimed the right to close the seas to their traffic. Truman 's unilateral claim of jurisdiction over the oil reserves of America's continental shelf in  directly led to the end of the regime.
The "internal waters" landward of the baseline are solely under national control. A "contiguous zone" of a further 12 nmi are permitted for hot pursuit of vessels charged with violating customs, taxation, immigration, or pollution laws in the territorial waters. Ships may cross numerous time zones on a voyage, so nautical time , introduced in the s, is used in international waters. Each such zone is uniformly 15 degrees of longitude wide, the ship's clock going forward one hour per zone when travelling eastwards.
Since the development of coordinated fleets of ships capable of landing an invasion force, naval warfare has been an important aspect in the defense or conquest of maritime states. The BC Battle of Salamis largely determined the course of the Persian Wars  not because of its inherent damage however considerable but because Themistocles 's deception and superior strategy left the Athenians capable of disrupting sea-borne supplies at will and potentially striking at the pontoon bridges across the Hellespont , cutting off the Persians' line of retreat.
Piracy —both illicit in ancient Cilicia and China and state-supported among the Cretans , Vikings , Japanese , English , and Berbers  —has remained a problem into the present day , given the expense involved in securely protecting every merchant vessel or in policing extensive coastlines. In the ancient world, in addition to Salamis , major naval engagements included the Battle of Actium , which permitted the establishment of Augustus 's empire.
In the modern era, important naval battles include the English victories against the Armada in and at Trafalgar in ,  which broke the threats of invasion by the superior land forces of the Spanish and French empires. With steam, mass-produced steel plate, and exploding shells, European gunships permitted the New Imperialism of the 19th century, forcing open access to Africa , China , Korea , and Japan for their merchants on favorable terms.
Although internal politics hampered Chinese modernization, American naval power produced a major reform in Japan which bore fruit during the Battle of Tsushima when the Japanese were able to decisively defeat Russia.
Meanwhile, the battles of the Mediterranean  and Pacific   theaters of the war had shown that air power was capable of overcoming the strongest warships. Although the use of small private vessels for personal transport undoubtably extends back into prehistory, large ships capable of braving the open ocean were typically dedicated to trade or fishing for most of human history. Even military campaigns would often simply hire or commandeer these private fleets to serve as troop transports , as did the traders, pilgrims , and wealthy tourists of antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The voyages of exploration and colonization were often provided for by the crown out of naval funds; where they were not, they were usually chartered or else purchased and then used for shipping supplies after the initial settlement. Dedicated and scheduled local passenger services came to be offered in the 16th and 17th centuries, but the Black Ball was the first trans-Atlantic passenger line. In the Age of Sail , the duration of such passages depended much on the prevailing winds and the weather.
The 18th-century coastal Margate hoys began the popularization of leisure travel in Britain and Ireland  that later gathered steam with Thomas Cook 's package tours in the next century. By , the Atlantic crossing took about five days and the passenger lines competed to win the Blue Riband , an unofficial accolade accorded to the fastest liner in regular service. For twenty years from , the prize went to the RMS Mauretania for its average speed of The sea still remains a venue for recreational boating and large cruise ships.
It is also a route for refugees and economic migrants , some traveling in small unseaworthy craft and others smuggled into shipping vessels. Some flee persecution while many are economic migrants attempting to reach countries where they believe their prospects are brighter. Use of the sea for leisure developed in the nineteenth century and became a significant industry in the twentieth century.
Many humans enjoy venturing into the sea: This was not always the case, with sea bathing becoming the vogue in Europe in the 18th century after Dr. William Buchan advocated the practice for health reasons. Other water sports include kite surfing , where a power kite propels a manned board across the water;  windsurfing , where the power is provided by a fixed, maneuverable sail;  and water skiing , where a powerboat is used to pull a skier.
Beneath the surface, freediving is necessarily restricted to shallow descents. Other useful equipment includes fins and snorkels. Scuba equipment allows underwater breathing, permitting hours of time beneath the surface. Deeper dives can be made with specialized equipment and training. The sea offers a very large supply of energy carried by ocean waves , tides , salinity differences, and ocean temperature differences which can be harnessed to generate electricity.
Tidal power uses generators to produce electricity from tidal flows, sometimes by using a dam to store and then release seawater. The Rance barrage , 1 kilometer 0. The large and highly variable energy of waves gives them enormous destructive capability, making affordable and reliable wave machines problematic to develop.
It was soon damaged by waves, then destroyed by a storm. Offshore wind power is captured by wind turbines placed out at sea; it has the advantage that wind speeds are higher than on land, though wind farms are more costly to construct offshore. Electricity power stations are often located on the coast or beside an estuary so that the sea can be used as a heat sink. A colder heat sink enables more efficient power generation, which is important for expensive nuclear power plants in particular.
There are large deposits of petroleum as oil and natural gas in rocks beneath the seabed. Offshore platforms and drilling rigs extract the oil or gas and store it for transport to land. Offshore oil and gas production can be difficult due to the remote, harsh environment. Animals may be disorientated by seismic waves used to locate deposits, probably causing the beaching of whales. The infrastructure may cause damage and oil may be spilt.
The sea holds enormous quantities of valuable dissolved minerals. Bromine , accumulated after being leached from the land, is economically recovered from the Dead Sea, where it occurs at 55, parts per million ppm.
This has advantages over land-based mining in that equipment can be built at specialized shipyards and infrastructure costs are lower. Disadvantages include problems caused by waves and tides, the tendency for excavations to silt up, and the washing away of spoil heaps. There is a risk of coastal erosion and environmental damage. They form when geothermally superheated water is emitted from deep sea hydrothermal vents known as " black smokers ": The ores are of high quality but currently very costly to extract.
Desalination is the technique of removing salts from seawater to leave fresh water suitable for drinking or irrigation. The two main processing methods, vacuum distillation and reverse osmosis , use large quantities of energy.
Desalination is normally only undertaken where fresh water from other sources is in short supply or energy is plentiful, as in the excess heat generated by power stations. The brine produced as a by-product contains some toxic materials and is returned to the sea. Some estimates put the amount available at between one and 5 million cubic kilometers 0. In the Pacific these may cover up to 30 percent of the deep ocean floor. The minerals precipitate from seawater and grow very slowly.
Their commercial extraction for nickel was investigated in the s but abandoned in favour of more convenient sources. In deeper waters, mobile seafloor crawlers are used and the deposits are pumped to a vessel above. In Namibia , more diamonds are now collected from marine sources than by conventional methods on land. Many substances enter the sea as a result of human activities.
Combustion products are transported in the air and deposited through precipitation. Agricultural, industrial, and sewage outflows contribute heavy metals , pesticides , PCBs , disinfectants , cleaning products, and other synthetic chemicals.
These become concentrated in the surface film and in marine sediment, especially estuarine mud. The result of all this contamination is largely unknown because of the large number of substances involved and the lack of information on their biological effects.
They are then passed up the food chain. Run-off of fertilizers from agricultural land is a major source of pollution in some areas and the discharge of raw sewage has a similar effect. The extra nutrients provided by these sources can cause excessive plant growth. Nitrogen is often the limiting factor in marine systems and the addition of nitrogen sparks algal blooms and red tides , which then may lower the oxygen level of the water to the point where it kills marine animals. Such events have created dead zones in the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Mexico.
The Irish Sea was contaminated by radioactive caesium from the former Sellafield nuclear fuel processing plant  and nuclear accidents sometimes cause radioactive material to seep into the sea, as at Fukushima in The dumping of waste including oil, noxious liquids, sewage, and garbage at sea is governed by international law.
The London Convention is a United Nations agreement to control ocean dumping which had been ratified by 89 countries by 8 June Much floating plastic trash does not biodegrade , instead disintegrating over time and eventually breaking down to the molecular level. Rigid plastics may float for years. Turtles and whales have been found with plastic bags and fishing line in their stomachs.
Microplastics may sink, threatening filter feeders on the seabed. Most oil pollution in the sea comes from cities and industry. It can clog the feathers of sea birds, reducing their insulating effect and the birds' buoyancy, or be ingested when they preen themselves in an attempt to remove the contaminant.
Marine mammals are less seriously affected but may be chilled through the removal of their insulation, blinded, dehydrated, or poisoned. Benthic invertebrates are swamped when the oil sinks, fish are poisoned, and the food chain is disrupted. In the short term, oil spills result in wildlife populations being decreased and unbalanced, leisure activities being affected, and the livelihoods of people dependent on the sea being devastated. In the Gulf of Mexico, where oil-eating bacteria are already present, they take only a few days to consume spilt oil.
Several nomadic indigenous groups in Maritime Southeast Asia live in boats and derive nearly all they need from the sea. The indigenous peoples of the Arctic such as the Chukchi , Inuit , Inuvialuit , and Yupik hunt marine mammals including seals and whales  and the Torres Strait Islanders claim ownership of the Great Barrier Reef. They live a traditional life on the islands involving hunting, fishing, gardening, and trading with neighboring peoples in Papua New Guinea and Australia.
The sea appears in human culture in contradictory ways, as both powerful but serene and as beautiful but dangerous. It has been populated by fantastic creatures: The sea, its life, and its ships have been depicted in art ranging from the simple drawings on the walls of caves outside Les Eyzies , France, to the early Christian ichthys to the Dutch Hendrik Vroom to Hokusai 's ukiyo-e to seascapes by Winslow Homer. Music too has been inspired by the ocean. Sea shanties were chanted by mariners to help coordinate arduous tasks and impressions in music have been created of calm waters, crashing waves, and storms at sea.
As a symbol, the sea has for centuries played a role in literature and poetry. Sometimes, it is there just as a gentle background but often it introduces such themes as storm, shipwreck, battle, hardship, disaster, the dashing of hopes, or death. But the sea, though changed in a sinister way, will continue to exist: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
A large body of salt water surrounded in whole or in part by land. This article focuses on the collective seas of Earth. For individual seas, see List of seas. Oceanography and Physical oceanography.
Ancient maritime and maritime history , the history of navigation and cartography , and list of first human settlements. Seafood , Fishing , Aquaculture , and Whaling. Admiralty law and Law of the Sea. Naval warfare , maritime geography , and list of naval battles.
Cruising maritime , Sailing , and Recreational boat fishing. Marine energy and Offshore wind power. Offshore drilling and Deep sea mining. Sea in culture and Nautical fiction. Nautical portal Water portal. See the main body and the Notes, for the full range of understandings and definitions of the term.
Experiments to recreate the conditions of the lower mantle suggest it may contain still more water as well, as much as five times the mass of water present in the world's oceans. Without this additional water, increased urination to remove the salt produces dehydration. Gradually, they fall in with other waves travelling at similar speed—where different waves are in phase they reinforce each other, and where out of phase they are reduced.
Eventually, a regular pattern of high and low waves or swell is developed that remains constant as it travels out across the ocean. Retrieved 7 January Introduction to Marine Biology. Retrieved January 7, Monégasque Monte Carlo , Retrieved 7 February Retrieved January 7, — via OceanService.
Encyclopedia of the Oceans. The Glossary of the Mapping Sciences. The Italian Yearbook of International Law. The Water Cycle " in Ocean Explorer. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Columbia University New York.
Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. Earth and Space Sciences. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. See also the commentary about this explanation in Lagrange, E. An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment. Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics: Physical and Numerical Aspects. The Encyclopedia of Earth. University of California Museum of Paleontology. Principles of Physical Geography.
The Penguin Dictionary of Physical Geography. Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. Waterbodies That Don't Flow to the Sea". Water from the Mountains into the Sea. United Nations Environment Programme. EPA climate change web site. Carbon Emissions and Acidification". Principles for Clinical Medicine. Ocean biogeochemistry under global change". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Department of Natural Environmental Studies: Fisheries and Food from the Sea".
Recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Understanding and Protecting Marine Biodiversity. The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. A Derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory. Batavia Online Publishing Canberra. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Insights from the Y chromosome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The Polynesians — Prehistory of an Island People.