Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Preserving memory and boosting mood Bananas also contain tryptophan, an amino acid that studies suggest plays a role in preserving memory and boosting your mood. High potassium intakes are also associated with a reduced risk of stroke , protection against loss of muscle mass, preservation of bone mineral density and reduction in the formation of kidney stones. It will often be possible to ascribe a quantity of water that is taken under basic rights either to take under basic rights, or to another form of take. Part 3—Temporary diversion provision 6. It is to be noted that plant absorb not just cat ions but also anions too. Part 4—Agreements with regard to jurisdictional implementation obligations 1.
Tissues that secure oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide are extremely variable in the animal kingdom. The second class of tissues consists of those used in coordination. There are basically two types: In invertebrates, both physical and chemical coordination are performed by the same tissues, because the nervous tissues also serve as hormone sources. In vertebrates, most endocrine functions are isolated in specialized glands, several of which are derived from nervous tissue.
The basic unit of all nervous tissue is the neuron , aggregations of which are called ganglia. The bundles of axons along which neurons transmit and receive impulses are called nerves. By comparison, chemical control by hormones is much slower and longer-acting. In many invertebrates, chemical stimulators are secreted by the neurons themselves and then move to their site of action along the axon. In higher vertebrates, the principal endocrine tissues are the thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, and endocrine constituents of the pancreas and adrenal glands.
The connective tissues proper surround organs, bones, and muscles, helping to hold them together. Connective tissues proper consist of cells embedded in a matrix composed of an amorphous ground substance and collagen, elastic, and reticular fibres. Tendons and ligaments are examples of extremely strong connective tissues proper.
The other major structural tissues are cartilage and bone , which, like connective tissues proper, consist of cells embedded in an intercellular matrix. In cartilage the matrix is firm but rubbery; in bone the matrix is rigid, being impregnated by hard crystals of inorganic salts. Muscle tissue is primarily responsible for movement; it consists of contractile cells. There are two general types of muscle: A fourth class of tissues includes reproductive tissues, hemopoietic tissues, and tissue fluids.
The most important reproductive tissues are the gonads ovaries and testes , which produce the gametes eggs and sperm, respectively. Hemopoietic tissues produce the cellular components of the blood. Among the important tissue fluids are lymph, cerebrospinal fluid , and milk in mammals. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.
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The skin, being the outer covering of the body, easily raises the warning of pain, but other tissues that do…. Insulin is needed to move sugar from the blood to the cells where it produces energy.
There are two main types of carbohydrates, simple and complex. Refined sugar in your sugar bowl is a simple carbohydrate though much healthier sources are found in fruits and milk. Refined foods lack the other nutrients your body needs such as vitamins and minerals.
They are found in grain products, rice, crackers, pasta, vegetables and bread. Remember that a lot of these foods are refined and lack any other nutritional value so chose healthier carbs such as oatmeal, vegetables and whole grain bread or crackers. They help regulate body functions and also help break down your food. Many vitamins contain antioxidants which are substances that protect cells from damage and also prevent many degenerative diseases. Your body cannot produce vitamins with the exception of vitamin D and vitamin K so they must be obtained through natural, healthy foods or nutritional supplements.
There are at least 60 minerals in the body and it is said that at least 22 are essential to good health. Minerals are broken down into two catagories as follows:. As an example, deficiencies of certain trace minerals such as copper and manganese have been connected to lower bone density and weaker bones. Just a few of the other trace minerals include boron, iron, zinc, manganese, selenium, silica and iodine. I hope you found this definition of nutrients helpful and that you'll purchase wholesome foods with all the different types of nutrients your body needs on your next trip to the grocery store.
Remember that processed and refined foods have very low nutrient content! Part 3—Temporary diversion provision. The temporary diversion provision for each SDL resource unit is zero. Part 4—Method for determining compliance with long-term annual diversion limit. Division 1—Register of take. See section 4 of the Act for the meaning of long-term annual diversion limit.
Under the Basin Plan, the long-term annual diversion limit is the same as the long-term average sustainable diversion limit because the temporary diversion provision for each SDL resource unit is zero: Division 2—Method for determining compliance. See paragraphs 71 1 g and h of the Act. The Authority may undertake an audit in relation to compliance using its powers under the Act.
The findings of such an audit may also lead to further action being taken by the Authority to ensure compliance with sections 34, 35, 58 and 59 of the Act. Part 5—Allocation of risks in relation to reductions in water availability. See subsections 77 2 and 5 of the Act. Chapter 7—Adjustment of SDLs. The SDLs will constitute limits from 1 July These will be made by amendment of the Basin Plan under section 23B of the Act. The measure may do this either by making water available for environmental management without reducing consumptive take e.
Supply measures allow equivalent environmental outcomes to be achieved without needing to reduce consumptive take as much as originally anticipated in the Basin Plan. The additional water provided by supply measures will be made available for consumptive use as it will no longer need to be recovered from such use.
An adjustment made because of supply measures will increase the SDL decrease the reduction amount. Examples include investment in more efficient irrigation infrastructure. The water saved by efficiency measures will be allocated to environmental use but, due to the nature of efficiency measures, this will achieve neutral or improved social and economic impacts. An adjustment made because of efficiency measures will decrease the SDL increase the reduction amount. If Basin States request a particular re-allocation, the Authority must propose it.
Under Part 4, the Authority can propose adjustments to groundwater SDLs to reflect new or improved information relating to the groundwater of the groundwater SDL resource units.
This includes various measures expected to be in operation by , including as a result of investments that the Commonwealth is committed to funding, that are expected to recover the equivalent of at least GL of water per year.
These conditions include the infrastructure, rules and practices that were assumed in the benchmark model, including certain measures that were not yet in effect but were expected to be in place by , including as a result of investments that the Commonwealth is committed to funding and are expected to recover the equivalent of at least GL of water per year.
The Authority will, in consultation with the Basin Officials Committee, prepare and publish a report detailing the benchmark conditions of development as soon as practicable after the Basin Plan is made.
A supply measure is a measure that operates to increase the quantity of water available to be taken in a set of surface water SDL resource units compared with the quantity available under the benchmark conditions of development. An efficiency measure is a measure that operates to decrease the quantity of water required for one or more consumptive uses in a set of surface water SDL resource units, compared with the quantity required under the benchmark conditions of development.
Before finalising a determination of the amounts of proposed adjustments in accordance with this Chapter, the Authority must: Part 2—Adjustment of surface water SDLs for notified measures. The objective for this Part is to allow surface water SDLs to be adjusted to reflect the effects of measures that increase the supply of water or the efficiency of water use, and are notified under this Part, so that: Methods and results , MDBA publication no: Division 2—When Authority must propose appropriate adjustments.
Under section 23B of the Act, the Authority is then required to prepare appropriate amendments of the Basin Plan, for adoption by the Minister. Under section 23B of the Act, the Authority is then required to prepare appropriate amendments of the basin Plan, for adoption by the Minister.
This section might apply if, for example, a notified measure has been withdrawn or an additional efficiency measure has been registered. Division 3—Notification and recording of relevant matters. Division 4—Determining amounts of adjustments. The determination is based on the effect that the supply measures will have when they come into operation, whether or not they have done so by 30 June Efficiency contribution for determination.
The efficiency contributions are expected to vary over time as relevant water access entitlements are acquired. The Authority will use long-term diversion limit equivalent factors to convert water access entitlements into a common unit for the purpose of the determinations. Neutral or improved socio-economic outcomes.
Use of approval process. The Authority must apportion the total supply contribution for the notified measures to give each affected unit a supply contribution in a way that: If, at a particular time, the net effect of the total supply contribution and the total efficiency contribution under sections 7.
Some of the supply measures may not be operating by that date. The determination is based on the effect that they will have when they have come into operation by Part 3—Adjustments relating to shared reduction amounts.
The SDL resource unit shared reduction amounts that will apply are set under subsection 6. Under section 23B of the Act, the Authority is then required to prepare appropriate amendments of the Plan, for adoption by the Minister. SDL adjustments proposed under this Part will be used for the purpose of calculating any adjustment amounts under Part 2. For adjustments relating to a zone that lies in 2 Basin States, both States will need to request a proposal to ensure that the definition of re-allocation adjustment is satisfied.
Part 4—Adjustments relating to groundwater. The objective for this Part is to allow SDLs for groundwater SDL resource units to be adjusted to reflect new or improved information about their groundwater resources. Part 5—Independent audit of calculations. Chapter 8—Environmental watering plan. The principles to be applied in environmental watering are specified in Division 6 of Part 4. The Act imposes other obligations onto the Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder that relate to the environmental watering plan.
See sections , and of the Act. Part 2—Overall environmental objectives for water-dependent ecosystems. This Part sets out overall environmental objectives and particular objectives for each of those objectives. These objectives will be met in part by the provision of environmental water, but will also be supported by other management actions.
See also subsections 22 9 to 12 of the Act. The overall environmental objectives for the water-dependent ecosystems of the Murray-Darling Basin are, within the context of a working Murray-Darling Basin: The fact that water storages and properties including floodplains are under the control of various persons currently restricts the capacity to actively manage all water-dependent ecosystems.
See paragraph 21 3 c of the Act. This is to ensure that water quality is maintained at a level that does not compromise the ecosystem and that hydrologic connectivity is restored and maintained. Part 3—Targets by which to measure progress towards objectives. This review will include a review of the targets. The Authority must measure progress towards achieving the objectives in Part 2 by using the targets in Schedule 7 having regard to the following: Part 4—Environmental management framework.
This Part sets out the environmental management framework, which includes: The environmental management framework is intended to: The application of adaptive management will enable various triggers to be responded to, including any adjustment that might be made to the SDL.
Division 2—Basin-wide environmental watering strategy. See also subsection 8. See also sections 29 to 31 of the Act. Matters to which Authority must have regard. The Authority may review and update the Basin-wide environmental watering strategy in response to various triggers, including any adjustment that might be made to the SDL.
Division 3—Long-term watering plans. A Basin State must prepare a long-term environmental watering plan for each water resource plan area that contains surface water long-term watering plan. The level of detail in a long-term watering plan may vary according to local conditions, and statutory and other arrangements prevailing in the water resource plan area.
Identification of environmental watering requirements. Identification of possible co-operative arrangements. Identification of long-term risks. Incorporation of other material. Under paragraphs a and b , a Basin State may consult with any holder or manager whose environmental water could contribute to environmental watering in the water resource plan area, regardless of the location of the holder or manager, or of the location of the water.
Matters to which Basin State is to have regard. Advice from the Authority. Consistency with international agreements. A purpose of the Basin Plan, including Chapter 8, is to give effect to relevant international agreements see paragraph 20 a and subsections 21 1 , 2 and 3 of the Act. This provision is a further check to ensure that this purpose is achieved. The month timeframe referred to in paragraph a commences when the Authority actually publishes the strategy, and not 24 months after commencement of the Basin Plan.
To ensure transparency, it is expected that Basin States will publish long-term watering plans as soon as is practicable. Division 4—Annual environmental watering priorities. The level of detail in annual watering priorities may vary according to local conditions, and statutory and other arrangements prevailing in the water resource plan area. Matters to which Basin State must have regard. Information to be provided to Basin States to prepare annual environmental watering priorities. Consistency with long-term watering plans.
A Basin State must give its annual environmental watering priorities for a water accounting period to the Authority: Division 5—Basin annual environmental watering priorities.
For the application of Basin annual environmental watering priorities, see Division 6. The Basin annual environmental watering priorities may identify any of the following: Complex arrangements could include multiple water sources, multiple sites, the involvement of multiple parties, the achievement of multiple benefits, or trade-offs.
Synergies could be identified in order to maximise environmental benefits in the way described in section 8. The Authority may engage an individual scientist or scientific advisory committee to provide advice on aspects of Basin annual environmental watering priorities. How Authority identifies Basin annual environmental watering priorities.
The Authority must publish on its website the Basin annual environmental watering priorities: The Authority may review and update the Basin annual environmental watering priorities at any time, including during the water accounting period. Division 6—Principles to be applied in environmental watering. Subdivision A—Principles to be applied in environmental watering. This Subdivision sets out the principles to be applied in environmental watering.
See the definition of environmental watering in section 4 of the Act. Environmental watering is to be undertaken having regard to the Basin annual environmental watering priorities. There may be reasons why it is not possible in particular circumstances to undertake watering in accordance with these priorities. Environmental watering is to be undertaken consistently with the objectives in Part 2.
Subject to the principles in sections 8. Ensuring that the water achieves the best environmental outcomes including through multi-site watering en route to an intended priority environmental asset. Environmental watering is to be undertaken having regard to: Environmental watering is to be undertaken having regard to the quantity of water and other resources required relative to the expected environmental benefits. A lack of full scientific certainty as to whether there are threats of serious or irreversible environmental damage should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation.
Environmental watering should be undertaken having regard to the views of: Adaptive management should be applied in the planning, prioritisation and use of environmental water. Environmental watering should be undertaken in a way that is not inconsistent with relevant international agreements. River management and operational practices should be reviewed, and if necessary altered, to ensure that rivers can be managed to achieve multiple objectives, including the objectives in Part 2.
Subdivision B—Reporting in relation to Basin annual environmental watering priorities. See section 25D of the Acts Interpretation Act for content required in a statement of reasons. This aligns with the period by which an annual report must be produced on the implementation of the environmental management framework. Division 7—Planning for recovery of additional environmental water.
The reasoning may include models used by the Authority to identify priorities for the recovery of environmental water. Part 5—Methods for identifying environmental assets and ecosystem functions and their environmental watering requirements. This database is expected to include information used in the development of the Basin Plan which will be added to on an ongoing basis. If the environmental asset falls within the assessment indicator for Criterion 1 because it is a declared Ramsar wetland, the objectives must be directed towards maintaining the ecological character of the wetland.
If new information came to light, the step in paragraph 1 e could be re-applied without needing to re-apply the entire method. This may include a conceptual model. Part 6—Principles and method to determine priorities for applying environmental water. Division 1—Principles to be applied to determine priorities. This Division sets out the principles to be applied to determine the priorities for applying environmental water.
Priorities for applying environmental water are: Best available knowledge may change over time, especially as a result of monitoring undertaken pursuant to Chapter 13 of the Basin Plan. Priorities for applying environmental water are to be consistent with the objectives in Part 2. Priorities for applying environmental water are to be flexible and responsive so as to: Priorities for applying environmental water are to be determined having regard to matters relating to the condition of priority environmental assets and priority ecosystem functions, including: Priorities for applying environmental water are to be determined having regard to matters relating to the likely effectiveness of applying environmental water, including: The ability to use environmental water in concert with stock and domestic releases, or other releases for consumptive use.
Priorities for applying environmental water are to be determined having regard to matters relating to risk including: This involves the identification of water-dependent ecosystems that will not receive water as a result of a particular watering decision. Priorities for applying environmental water are to be determined using robust, transparent and documented decision-making processes. Division 2—Method to be used to determine priorities.
A resource availability scenario is one of the following: The seasonal, operational and management considerations upon which priorities for applying environmental water are to be refined must be based on the following: See also paragraph 8. Chapter 9—Water quality and salinity management plan.
The water quality and salinity management plan has been prepared having regard to the National Water Quality Management Strategy endorsed by the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council see subsection 25 3 of the Act. Water quality includes salinity: Part 2—Key causes of water quality degradation in Murray-Darling Basin.
Part 3—Water quality objectives for Basin water resources. This Part sets out the following water quality objectives for Basin water resources: The water quality objectives for raw water for treatment for human consumption are: The water quality objective for irrigation water is that the quality of surface water, when used in accordance with the best irrigation and crop management practices and principles of ecologically sustainable development, does not result in crop yield loss or soil degradation.
The water quality objective for recreational water quality is to achieve a low risk to human health from water quality threats posed by exposure through ingestion, inhalation or contact during recreational use of Basin water resources. If the value of a water quality characteristic for example, salinity, nutrients, pesticides, pH, turbidity is at a level that is better than the target value for water quality set out in Part 4, an objective is to maintain that level.
A discharge of an average of 2 million tonnes of salt each water accounting period has been assessed as being adequate for the purposes of subsection 2. This figure has been calculated on the basis of a long-term modelled estimate approach that takes into account cyclical climate influences on flows, as well as existing works and measures such as salt interception schemes that avoid substantial quantities of salt entering the River Murray System, and which are complementary to flushing salt from the River Murray System.
Part 4—Water quality targets. This Part sets out the following: The provisions of that Schedule operate independently of, and are unaffected by, the targets in this Part.
Basin States and Commonwealth agencies are required to produce reports on those matters: See also section The failure to achieve a target does not in itself mean that: If, for a Basin water resource, more than one target value set out in this Part applies for the same water quality characteristic for example, salinity, nutrients, pesticides, pH, turbidity , the most stringent target value applies.
Division 2—Targets for managing water flows. River Murray at Murray Bridge. River Murray at Morgan. River Murray at Lock 6. Darling River downstream of Menindee Lakes at Burtundy. Lower Lakes at Milang. Division 3—Water quality targets for water resource plans. The targets set out in this Division are to inform the development of certain measures which are required to be included in water resource plans. In some circumstances, a WQM plan in a water resource plan may specify alternatives to target values set out in this Division: The targets in this Division relate to fresh water-dependent ecosystems, irrigation water and recreational water.
The ADWG sets out standards for the quality of raw water for treatment for human consumption. Southern Basin Murray River and tributaries. Paroo and Warrego rivers— The water quality targets for water used for recreational purposes are that the values for cyanobacteria cell counts or biovolume meet the guideline values set out in Chapter 6 of the Guidelines for Managing Risks in Recreational Water.
Chapter 10—Water resource plan requirements. Part 2—Identification of water resource plan area and other matters. Water resource plan constituted by 2 or more instruments. Subsection 63 1 of the Act states that a water resource plan may be constituted by 2 or more instruments. The same instrument or text may be used for more than one water resource plan.
Water resource plan to include list of requirements. Material not forming part of the water resource plan. See paragraph d of the definition of water resource plan in section 4 of the Act.
A water resource plan must: The Legislative Instruments Act requires that the explanatory statements for such plans describe the consultation undertaken in relation to the plans.
Part 3—Incorporation and application of long-term annual diversion limit. Division 1—Water access rights. Division 2—Take for consumptive use. This Division sets out the principal provisions for how a water resource plan incorporates and applies the SDL for each SDL resource unit.
Amendments under section 23B of the Act are made following proposals for adjustment under Chapter 7. Water resource plans are not required to give effect to the long-term average sustainable diversion limits until 1 July Water allocations can be made during or before a water accounting period. The annual permitted take is usually worked out after the end of a water accounting period. A water resource plan may provide for less water to be taken.
Paragraph g includes what is commonly known as a growth-in-use strategy. The annual actual take for the SDL resource unit is the sum of the quantity of water actually taken by each form of take for consumptive use: Part 4—The sustainable use and management of water resources.
Division 1—Sustainable use and management. This Part sets out the requirements in relation to the sustainable use and management of water resources of the water resource plan area within the long-term annual diversion limit for an SDL resource unit.
Division 4—How requirements have been met.