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Just arrived from Seville! Men, I perceive, are poor Politicians—Women make Children of us—Were his Majesty wife, he would name you, and not me, for his Ambassador. All our staff have been carefully chosen for their ability, dedication and love of children, in addition to their qualifications. Meal times are fun and a wonderful opportunity to socialise, learn table manners and help each other. Minimum nights per rental: Sabotage at Black Tom:

Introduction

Black Tom explosion

The island was artificial, created by landfill around "black tom" rock, a local hazard to navigation. A mile-long pier on the island housed a depot and warehouses for the National Dock and Storage Company.

Black Tom was a major munitions depot for the Northeastern United States. Until early , American munitions companies could sell to any buyer. After the Blockade of Germany by the Royal Navy , however, only the Allied powers could purchase from them. As a result, Imperial Germany sent secret agents to the United States to obstruct the production and delivery of war munitions that were intended to be used by its enemies.

After midnight on July 30, a series of small fires were discovered on the pier. Some guards fled, fearing an explosion. Others attempted to fight the fires and eventually called the Jersey City Fire Department. Fragments from the explosion traveled long distances, some lodging in the Statue of Liberty and some in the clock tower of The Jersey Journal building in Journal Square , over a mile away, stopping the clock at 2: The explosion was the equivalent of an earthquake measuring between 5.

Some window panes in Times Square were shattered. The stained glass windows in St. Patrick's Church were destroyed. People as far away as Maryland were awakened by what they thought was an earthquake. Immigrants being processed at Ellis Island had to be evacuated to lower Manhattan. Although one contemporary newspaper report estimated that up to seven [14] people died in the attack; 4 did definitely die, [15] [1] including a Jersey City policeman, [16] [17] a Lehigh Valley Railroad chief of police, [18] [19] a ten-week-old infant, [17] and the barge captain.

Smaller explosions continued to occur for hours after the initial blast. In the immediate aftermath of the explosion, two watchmen who had lit smudge pots to keep away mosquitoes were questioned by police but it soon determined that the smudge pots had not caused the fire and that the blast had likely been an accident. Many years later, the explosion was traced to Michael Kristoff, [21] a Slovak immigrant.

According to Kristoff, two of the guards at Black Tom were German agents. It is likely that the bombing involved some of the techniques developed by German agents working for German ambassador Count Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff and German Naval Intelligence officer Franz von Rintelen , using the cigar bombs developed by Doctor Walter Scheele.

Additional investigations by the Directorate of Naval Intelligence also found links to some members of the Irish " Clan na Gael " group, the Indian " Ghadar Party " and Communist elements. The Russian government sued the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company operating the Black Tom Terminal on grounds that lax security there was no entrance gate; territory was unlighted [30] permitted the loss of their ammunition and argued that due to the failure to deliver them the manufacturer was obliged by the contract to replace them.

In , Ralph Waldo Emerson , alluding to the development of European civilization out of the medieval Dark Ages , wrote in his private journal of America as the Utopian product of a culturally and racially mixed " smelting pot", but only in were his remarks first published. In his writing, Emerson explicitly welcomed the racial intermixing of whites and non-whites, a highly controversial view during his lifetime.

The fusing process goes on as in a blast-furnace ; one generation, a single year even—transforms the English, the German, the Irish emigrant into an American. Uniform institutions, ideas, language, the influence of the majority, bring us soon to a similar complexion; the individuality of the immigrant, almost even his traits of race and religion, fuse down in the democratic alembic like chips of brass thrown into the melting pot.

In , historian Frederick Jackson Turner also used the metaphor of immigrants melting into one American culture. In his essay The Significance of the Frontier in American History , he referred to the "composite nationality" of the American people, arguing that the frontier had functioned as a " crucible " where "the immigrants were Americanized, liberated and fused into a mixed race, English in neither nationality nor characteristics".

In his travel narrative The American Scene , Henry James discusses cultural intermixing in New York City as a "fusion, as of elements in solution in a vast hot pot". The exact term "melting pot" came into general usage in the United States after it was used as a metaphor describing a fusion of nationalities, cultures and ethnicities in the play of the same name , first performed in Washington, D. Understand that America is God's Crucible, the great Melting-Pot where all the races of Europe are melting and re-forming!

Here you stand, good folk, think I, when I see them at Ellis Island, here you stand in your fifty groups, your fifty languages, and histories, and your fifty blood hatreds and rivalries. But you won't be long like that, brothers, for these are the fires of God you've come to—these are fires of God. A fig for your feuds and vendettas! God is making the American. In The Melting Pot , Israel Zangwill combined a romantic denouement with an utopian celebration of complete cultural intermixing.

Vera is an idealistic settlement house worker and David is a composer struggling to create an "American symphony" to celebrate his adopted homeland.

Together they manage to overcome the old world animosities that threaten to separate them. But then David discovers that Vera is the daughter of the Tsarist officer who directed the pogrom that forced him to flee Russia. Horrified, he breaks up with her, betraying his belief in the possibility of transcending religious and ethnic animosities.

However, unlike Shakespeare's tragedy, there is a happy ending. At the end of the play the lovers are reconciled.

Reunited with Vera and watching the setting sun gilding the Statue of Liberty , David Quixano has a prophetic vision: There she lies, the great Melting-Pot—Listen! Can't you hear the roaring and the bubbling? There gapes her mouth, the harbor where a thousand mammoth feeders come from the ends of the world to pour in their human freight".

David foresees how the American melting pot will make the nation's immigrants transcend their old animosities and differences and will fuse them into one people: Ah, Vera, what is the glory of Rome and Jerusalem where all nations and races come to worship and look back, compared with the glory of America, where all races and nations come to labour and look forward!

Zangwill thus combined the metaphor of the "crucible" or "melting pot" with a celebration of the United States as an ideal republic and a new promised land. The prophetic words of his Jewish protagonist against the backdrop of the Statue of Liberty allude to Emma Lazarus 's famous poem The New Colossus , which celebrated the statue as a symbol of American democracy and its identity as an immigrant nation.

Zangwill concludes his play by wishing, "Peace, peace, to all ye unborn millions, fated to fill this giant continent—the God of our children give you Peace. In terms of immigrants to the United States , the "melting pot" process has been equated with Americanization , that is, cultural assimilation and acculturation.

The "melting pot" metaphor implies both a melting of cultures and intermarriage of ethnicities , yet cultural assimilation or acculturation can also occur without intermarriage. Thus African-Americans are fully culturally integrated into American culture and institutions. Yet more than a century after the abolition of slavery, intermarriage between African-Americans and other ethnicities is much less common than between different white ethnicities, or between white and Asian ethnicities.

Intermarriage between whites and non-whites, and especially African-Americans, was a taboo in the United States for a long time, and was illegal in many US states see anti-miscegenation laws until The melting pot theory of ethnic relations, which sees American identity as centered upon the acculturation or assimilation and the intermarriage of white immigrant groups, has been analyzed by the emerging academic field of whiteness studies.

This discipline examines the " social construction of whiteness" and highlights the changing ways in which whiteness has been normative to American national identity from the 17th to the 20th century. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, European immigration to the United States became increasingly diverse and increased substantially in numbers.

Beginning in the s, large numbers of Southern and Eastern European immigrant groups such as the Italians , Jews , and Poles arrived. Many returned to Europe but those who remained merged into the cultural melting pot, adopting American lifestyles.

Hostility forced them into "Chinatowns" or ethnic enclaves in the larger cities, where they lived a culture apart and seldom assimilated. The acquisition of Hawaii in , with full citizenship for the residents of all races, greatly increased the Asian American population. In the early 20th century, the meaning of the recently popularized concept of the melting pot was subject to ongoing debate which centered on the issue of immigration.

The debate surrounding the concept of the melting pot centered on how immigration impacted American society and on how immigrants should be approached. The melting pot was equated with either the acculturation or the total assimilation of European immigrants, and the debate centered on the differences between these two ways of approaching immigration: Nativists wanted to severely restrict access to the melting pot.

They felt that far too many "undesirables," or in their view, culturally inferior immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe had already arrived. The compromises that were reached in a series of immigration laws in the s established the principle that the number of new arrivals should be small, and, apart from family reunification, the inflow of new immigrants should match the ethnic profile of the nation as it existed at that time.

Intermarriage between Euro-American men and Native American women has been common since colonial days. In the 21st century some 7. The mixing of whites and blacks, resulting in multiracial children, for which the term " miscegenation " was coined in , was a taboo, and most whites opposed marriages between whites and blacks. In many states, marriage between whites and non-whites was even prohibited by state law through anti-miscegenation laws.

As a result, two kinds of "mixture talk" developed:. As the new word—miscegenation—became associated with black-white mixing, a preoccupation of the years after the Civil War, the residual European immigrant aspect of the question of [ethnoracial mixture] came to be more than ever a thing apart, discussed all the more easily without any reference to the African-American aspect of the question. This separation of mixture talk into two discourses facilitated, and was in turn reinforced by, the process Matthew Frye Jacobson has detailed whereby European immigrant groups became less ambiguously white and more definitely "not black".

By the early 21st century, many white Americans celebrated the impact of African-American culture, especially in sports and music. Marriages between white Americans and African-Americans were still problematic in both communities. Israel Zangwill saw this coming in the early 20th century: White Americans long regarded some elements of African-American culture quintessentially "American", while at the same time treating African Americans as second-class citizens.

White appropriation, stereotyping and mimicking of black culture played an important role in the construction of an urban popular culture in which European immigrants could express themselves as Americans, through such traditions as blackface , minstrel shows and later in jazz and in early Hollywood cinema, notably in The Jazz Singer Analyzing the "racial masquerade" that was involved in creation of a white "melting pot" culture through the stereotyping and imitation of black and other non-white cultures in the early 20th century, historian Michael Rogin has commented: Unlike other racially stigmatized groups, white immigrants can put on and take off their mask of difference.

But the freedom promised immigrants to make themselves over points to the vacancy, the violence, the deception, and the melancholy at the core of American self-fashioning". Since World War II, the idea of the melting pot has become more racially inclusive in the United States, gradually extending also to acceptance of marriage between whites and non-whites.

This trend towards greater acceptance of ethnic and racial minorities was evident in popular culture in the combat films of World War II, starting with Bataan This film celebrated solidarity and cooperation between Americans of all races and ethnicities through the depiction of a multiracial American unit. At the time blacks and Japanese in the armed forces were still segregated, while Chinese and Indians were in integrated units. Historian Richard Slotkin sees Bataan and the combat genre that sprang from it as the source of the "melting pot platoon", a cinematic and cultural convention symbolizing in the s "an American community that did not yet exist", and thus presenting an implicit protest against racial segregation.

However, Slotkin points out that ethnic and racial harmony within this platoon is predicated upon racist hatred for the Japanese enemy: The final heat which blends the ingredients of the melting pot is rage against an enemy which is fully dehumanized as a race of 'dirty monkeys.

In Hawaii, as Rohrer argues, there are two dominant discourses of racial politics, both focused on " haole " white people or whiteness in Hawaii in the islands. The first is the discourse of racial harmony representing Hawaii as an idyllic racial paradise with no conflict or inequality.

There is also a competing discourse of discrimination against nonlocals, which contends that "haoles" and nonlocal people of color are disrespected and treated unfairly in Hawaii. As negative referents for each other, these discourses work to reinforce one another and are historically linked. Throughout the history of the modern Olympic Games, the theme of the United States as a melting pot has been employed to explain American athletic success, becoming an important aspect of national self-image.

The diversity of American athletes in the Olympic Games in the early 20th century was an important avenue for the country to redefine a national culture amid a massive influx of immigrants, as well as American Indians represented by Jim Thorpe in and blacks represented by Jesse Owens in The international aspect of the games allowed the United States to define its pluralistic self-image against the monolithic traditions of other nations.

American athletes served as cultural ambassadors of American exceptionalism , promoting the melting pot ideology and the image of America as a progressive nation based on middle-class culture. Journalists and other American analysts of the Olympics framed their comments with patriotic nationalism, stressing that the success of U. Following the September 11, terrorist attacks, the Winter Games in Salt Lake City strongly revived the melting pot image, returning to a bedrock form of American nationalism and patriotism.

The reemergence of Olympic melting pot discourse was driven especially by the unprecedented success of African Americans , Mexican Americans , Asian Americans , and Native Americans in events traditionally associated with Europeans and white North Americans such as speed skating and the bobsled. The concept of multiculturalism was preceded by the concept of cultural pluralism , which was first developed in the s and s, and became widely popular during the s.

The concept of cultural pluralism first emerged in the s and s among intellectual circles out of the debates in the United States over how to approach issues of immigration and national identity.

The war and the Russian Revolution , which caused a " Red Scare " in the US, which also fanned feelings of xenophobia. During and immediately after the First World War, the concept of the melting pot was equated by Nativists with complete cultural assimilation towards an Anglo-American norm "Anglo-conformity" on the part of immigrants, and immigrants who opposed such assimilation were accused of disloyalty to the United States. The players who did not fold ante again and there is a new deal involving just these players.

To increase the proportion of good hands, some players add a joker, to make a deck of 53 cards. The joker is not a true wild card but a bug: So for example joker is not a full house but two pairs with an ace kicker. When used in a flush the joker represents the highest card not already present, so for example A- K- J- 4- 2 beats A- 9- 8-joker because the bug represents the K not a second ace.

The bug can be added to any of the above versions: In this variation of Jacks or Better , the four deuces twos are wild cards.

A deuce can be used as any card the holder needs to complete a hand. The highest hand type is Five of a Kind, which is better than a Straight Flush.

Except when making Five of a Kind, a wild card cannot be used to represent a card that is already present in a player's hand. The only case where this matters is when making a Flush, in which case if you have for example a natural ace, you cannot use a wild card as a second ace. This variant is found mostly in home poker games and is usually played with the rule that players must declare their own hands the cards do not "speak for themselves" - see poker betting and showdown for details.

It is equally possible to play with any other set of cards wild as agreed by the players, or as specified by the dealer in a dealer's choice game. For example you one can play with fives wild, or with one-eyed jacks wild. This five-card draw variation is similar to deuces wild except that the wild card is determined during the deal rather than specified in advance.

This is done by dealing a card dealt face up to the table, usually after the fourth card has been dealt to each player. The other three cards of the same rank as the face up card are wild.

This is a five-card draw in which deuces are wild and players are not allowed to draw more than two cards. There is an extra rule that the player who opens makes the first bet must either win the pot or match it.

In other words, if the pot is won by a player other than the opener, the opener must pay to create a new pot equal to the pot was just won. The deal then passes to the left with no new antes and the game is played for this new pot. This continues until a hand is played in which the opener wins the pot.

If this variant is played in a dealer's choice game, it continues until the opener wins the pot, after which the deal passes to the player to the left of the player who called Diablo, who can then select another game. To avoid the pot becoming too large, some groups may prefer to put a fixed limit on the size of the new pot that the opener must create after failing to win. This variation of Jacks or Better works well for smaller groups, say 3 to 5 players, in which case there will be many deals on which no one can open.

The game begins like Five Card Draw. Five cards are dealt to each player and there is a betting round, in which Jacks or Better are required to open. If someone opens the betting the game proceeds exactly like normal Five Card Draw, and in a showdown the highest hand wins the pot.

If no one opens in the first betting round the cards are not thrown in. Instead the players keep their cards and the game changes to Ace-to-five Lowball , and there is a new betting round begun by the player to dealer's left. Provided that the betting is opened in this new betting round, the players then have the chance to draw with the aim of making a low hand. After the draw there is another betting round, begun by the first active player to dealer's left. If more than one player stays in there is a showdown in which the lowest poker hand wins.

Aces are low and straights and flushes do not count, so the best hand is A a "bicycle". A-A is a pair, so it is worse than any hand without a pair, but better than any other pair since aces are low.

It may happen that no one opens in the first betting round, and then after the game changes to Lowball everyone checks again. In this case the cards are thrown in and the turn to deal passes to the left. To avoid the possibility that a hand is thrown in, some clubs have a rule that when the game changes to Lowball the player to dealer's left must place a "blind" bet, and the betting round begins with the next player to the left.

The player who placed the blind may raise after everyone else has acted even if no one did more than call. The betting round after the draw is begun by the first active player to dealer's left as usual. Some play that check-raising is not allowed in the Lowball part of this game, and also apply the betting sevens rule as for California Lowball.

Jacks Back is often played with a joker, which acts as a bug for high hands. When the game is played for low, the joker is known as a fitter , and it represents the lowest card not already present in the player's hand. Other forms of Lowball Draw Poker are described on the Lowball page.

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